• Aaron Swartz n’en finira donc pas d’être suicidé ?

    Quand la France accuse l’Internet Archive de propagande terroriste
    Et demande la suppression de contenus licites

    Dans un billet de blog, l’Internet Archive raconte avoir récemment reçu de multiples demandes de retrait de contenu pour cause d’apologie du terrorisme. Ces demandes, que l’organisme considère comme erronées, viennent de France.

    Article par Johann Breton pour Les Numériques : https://www.lesnumeriques.com/vie-du-net/quand-france-accuse-internet-archive-propagande-terroriste-n85871.htm
    https://dyw7ncnq1en5l.cloudfront.net/optim/news/85/85871/internet_archive_page_d-accueil.jpg

    L’Internet Archive, organisme à but non lucratif basé aux États-Unis, s’est donné une mission : sauvegarder plus ou moins tout ce qui apparaît sur Internet. Ainsi, ses bases de données contiennent les copies de milliards de pages web de même que de très nombreux ouvrages. Les pages peuvent notamment être consultées au moyen de la célèbre Wayback Machine, tandis que les livres, logiciels, films et autres enregistrements sont mis à disposition sous forme de collections. Naturellement, l’organisme veille à ne pas mettre n’importe quoi à la portée de tous, mais archive parfois des contenus qui ne sont pas nécessairement tous publics.

    En ce début de mois d’avril, l’Internet Archive a eu droit à une petite surprise. Elle a reçu quelque 550 demandes de suppression de contenu émises par une adresse courriel @europol.europa.eu, et pas pour n’importe quel motif : propagande terroriste. Dans un premier temps, l’organisme a (logiquement) cru avoir affaire à l’Union européenne, mais en y regardant de plus près, il s’est rendu compte que les demandes émanaient d’une autorité française, cette dernière passant simplement par la plateforme d’Europol. Et en examinant le détail des demandes, le spécialiste de l’archivage a constaté qu’il n’avait pas nécessairement été aussi négligeant que le nombre de requêtes pouvait le laisser à supposer.

    /.../ /.../ /.../

    De manière générale, ces demandes sont une vraie source de pression, dans la mesure où l’Internet Archive pourrait être sanctionnée pour son refus d’obtempérer. Plus ennuyeux, l’Union européenne travaille actuellement sur un texte qui ne laisserait qu’une heure aux administrateurs pour supprimer les contenus identifiés comme des incitations au terrorisme (texte qui s’adresse avant tout à la problématique des réseaux sociaux). Or, il va sans dire qu’un tel organisme serait incapable de contrôler des centaines de demandes en une heure. La question est ouvertement posée à la fin du billet : comment peut-on parler de respect de la liberté d’expression dans le cadre de ces dispositifs si de telles demandes peuvent être émises sous l’égide de l’UE ? Faut-il traiter aveuglément les requêtes au risque d’effacer à tort des contenus d’intérêt majeur ?

    Source [en] sur le blog de Internet Archive : Official EU Agencies Falsely Report More Than 550 Archive.org URLs as Terrorist Content : https://blog.archive.org/2019/04/10/official-eu-agencies-falsely-report-more-than-550-archive-org-urls-as-

    #internet #archives #Loi #terrorisme #censure #Aaron_Swartz

    https://seenthis.net/messages/775547 via ¿’ ValK.


  • N°1 Archives privées contemporaines : quel traitement ? quel devenir ? - vendredi 16 mars 2018, 11h-13h
    https://vimeo.com/319003179

    Conception : Reine Prat (coordinatrice générale de l’événement), intervenant.es : Emilie Blanc, Adam Evrard, Valentin Gleyze et Adelin.e Leménager (doctorant.es Université Rennes 2), Elvan Zabunyan (historienne de l’art contemporain, professeur à Rennes 2), Ewen Chardronnet (artiste, commissaire d’expositions), Alain Carou (BnF), Catherine Gonnard (Ina), Catherine Lord (artiste, écrivaine).

    Après la projection du court-métrage « Nathalie Magnan, théoricienne des médias » de Christophe Écoffet, Cyril Thomas et Gilles Beaujard, interrogent les frontières du #genre et le rôle majeur de Nathalie Magnan pour l’enseignement et la diffusion des pensées #féministes et #queer nord-américaines en France. Cette introduction est conclue par Elvan Zabunyan qui évoque ses rencontres avec la théoricienne des médias. Ewen Chardronnet propose une navigation à travers les #archives de #Nathalie_Magnan en datavisualisation à partir de l’outil Zotero. Catherine Gonnard intervient du double point de vue de documentaliste à l’Ina et de militante engagée dans les archives féministes et lesbiennes. Alain Carou précise dans quelles conditions la BnF accueillera et s’attachera à valoriser, dans toutes leurs dimensions, ses archives. Catherine Lord revient sur les spécificités des archives Lgbtq et présente un slide-show, réalisé à partir d’une sélection des quelques 25 000 photographies numériques personnelles de l’activiste, ce qui suscite une forte émotion dans la salle.

    https://seenthis.net/messages/769647 via Fil


  • Old Palestinian photos & films hidden in IDF archive show different history than Israeli claims
    https://i1.wp.com/israelpalestinenews.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/LootedFilms.png?resize=728%2C410&ssl=1#.jpg

    Palestinian photos and films seized by Israeli troops have been gathering dust in the army and Defense Ministry archives until Dr. Rona Sela, a curator and art historian, exposed them. The material presents an alternative to the Zionist history that denied the Palestinians’ existence here, she says.

    The initial reaction is one of incredulity: Why is this material stored in the Israel Defense Forces and Defense Ministry Archive? The first item is labeled, in Hebrew, “The History of Palestine from 1919,” the second, “Paintings by Children Who Go to School and Live in a Refugee Camp and Aspire to Return to Palestine.” The third is, “Depiction of the IDF’s Treatment and Harsh Handling of Palestinians in the Territories.”

    Of all places, these three reels of 16-mm film are housed in the central archive that documents Israel’s military-security activities. It’s situated in Tel Hashomer, near the army’s National Induction Center, outside Tel Aviv.

    IDF archive contains 2.7 million photos, 38,000 films

    The three items are barely a drop in an ocean of some 38,000 films, 2.7 million photographs, 96,000 audio recordings and 46,000 maps and aerial photos that have been gathered into the IDF Archive since 1948, by order of Israel’s first prime minister and defense minister, David Ben-Gurion. However, a closer perusal shows that this particular “drop in the ocean” is subversive, exceptional and highly significant.

    The footage in question is part of a collection – whose exact size and full details remain unknown – of “war booty films” seized by the IDF from Palestinian archives in raids over the years, though primarily in the 1982 Lebanon War.

    Recently, however, following a persistent, protracted legal battle, the films confiscated in Lebanon, which had been gathering dust for decades – instead of being screened in cinematheques or other venues in Israel – have been rescued from oblivion, along with numerous still photos. The individual responsible for this development is Dr. Rona Sela, a curator and researcher of visual history at Tel Aviv University.

    For nearly 20 years, Sela has been exploring Zionist and Palestinian visual memory. She has a number of important revelations and discoveries to her credit, which she has published in the form of books, catalogs and articles. Among the Hebrew-language titles are “Photography in Palestine/Eretz-Israel in the ‘30s and ‘40s” (2000) and “Made Public: Palestinian Photographs in Military Archives in Israel” (2009). In March, she published an article in the English-language periodical Social Semiotics on, “The Genealogy of Colonial Plunder and Erasure – Israel’s Control over Palestinian Archives.”

    Now Sela has made her first film, “Looted and Hidden: Palestinian Archives in Israel,” an English-language documentary that surveys the fate of Palestinian photographs and films that were “captured” and deposited in Israeli archives. It includes heretofore unseen segments from films seized by the IDF from Palestinian archives in Beirut. These documentary records, Sela says, “were erased from consciousness and history” for decades.

    Sela begins journey in 1998

    Getting access to the films was not easy, Sela explains. Her archival journey began in 1998, when she was researching Zionist propaganda films and photos that sought to portray the “new Jew” – muscular, proudly tilling the soil – in contradistinction, according to the Zionist perception, to the supposedly degenerate and loutish Palestinian Arab.

    “After spending a few years in the Central Zionist Archive in Jerusalem and in other Zionist archives, researching the history of Zionist photography and the construction of a visual propaganda apparatus supporting the Zionist idea, I started to look for Palestinian visual representation as well, in order to learn about the Palestinian narrative and trace its origins and influence,” she says.

    That task was far more complicated than anyone could have imagined. In some of the Zionist films and photos, Sela was able to discern, often incidentally, episodes from Palestinian history that had “infiltrated” them, as she puts it. For example, in Carmel Newsreels (weekly news footage screened at local cinemas) from 1951, showing the settlement of Jews in Jaffa, demolished and abandoned Arab homes are clearly visible.

    Subsequently, Sela spotted traces and remnants of a genuine Palestinian visual archive occasionally cropping up in Israeli archives. Those traces were not immediately apparent, more like an elusive treasure concealed here and there beneath layers of restrictions, erasures and revisions.

    Khalil Rassass, father of Palestinian photojournalism

    Thus, one day she noticed in the archive of the pre-state Haganah militia, stills bearing the stamp “Photo Rissas.” Digging deeper, she discovered the story of Chalil Rissas (Khalil Rassass, 1926-1974), one of the fathers of Palestinian photojournalism. He’s unknown to the general public, whether Palestinian or Israel, but according to Sela, he was a “daring, groundbreaking photographer” who, motivated by a sense of national consciousness, documented the pre-1948 Palestinian struggle.

    Subsequently she found hundreds of his photographs, accompanied by captions written by soldiers or Israeli archive staff who had tried to foist a Zionist narrative on them and disconnect them from their original context. The source of the photographs was a Jewish youth who received them from his father, an IDF officer who brought them back with him from the War of Independence as booty.

    The discovery was unprecedented. In contrast to the Zionist propaganda images that exalted the heroism of the Jewish troops and barely referred to the Palestinians, Rissas’ photographs were mainly of Palestinian fighters. Embodying a proud Palestinian stance, they focused on the national and military struggle and its outcome, including the Palestinians’ military training and deployment for battle.

    “I realized that I’d come across something significant, that I’d found a huge cache of works by one of the fathers of Palestinian photography, who had been the first to give visual expression to the Palestinian struggle,” Sela recalls. “But when I tried to learn more about Chalil Rissas, I understood that he was a forgotten photographer, that no one knew the first thing about him, either in Israel or elsewhere.”

    Sela thereupon decided to study the subject herself. In 1999, she tracked down Rissas’ brother, Wahib, who was working as a photographer of tourists on the Temple Mount / Haram a-Sharif in Jerusalem’s Old City. He told her the story of Chalil’s life. It turned out that he had accompanied Palestinian troops and leaders, visually documenting the battles fought by residents of the Jerusalem area during the 1948 War of Independence. “He was a young man who chose the camera as an instrument for changing people’s consciousness,” Sela says.

    Ali Za’arur, forgotten Palestinian photographer

    Around 2007, she discovered the archive of another forgotten Palestinian photographer, Ali Za’arur (1900-1972), from Azzariyeh, a village east of Jerusalem. About 400 of his photos were preserved in four albums. They also depicted scenes from the 1948 war, in which Za’arur accompanied the forces of Jordan’s Arab Legion and documented the battle for the Old City of Jerusalem. He photographed the dead, the ruins, the captives, the refugees and the events of the cease-fire.

    In the Six-Day War of 1967, Za’arur fled from his home for a short time. When he returned, he discovered that the photo albums had disappeared. A relative, it emerged, had given them to Jerusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek as a gift. Afterward, the Jerusalem Foundation donated them to the IDF Archive. In 2008, in an unprecedented act, the archive returned the albums to Za’arur’s family. The reason, Sela surmises, is that the albums were captured by the army in battle. In any event, this was, as far as is known, a unique case.

    Sela took heart from the discoveries she’d made, realizing that “with systematic work, it would be possible to uncover more Palestinian archives that ended up in Israeli hands.”

    That work was three-pronged: doing archival research to locate Palestinian photographs and films that had been incorporated into Israeli archives; holding meetings with the Palestinian photographers themselves, or members of their families; and tracking down Israeli soldiers who had taken part in “seizing these visual spoils” and in bringing them to Israel.

    In the course of her research Sela met some fascinating individuals, among them Khadijeh Habashneh, a Jordan-based Palestinian filmmaker who headed the archive and cinematheque of the Palestinian Cinema Institute. That institution, which existed from the end of the 1960s until the early ‘80s, initially in Jordan and afterward in Lebanon, was founded by three pioneering Palestinian filmmakers – Sulafa Jadallah, Hani Jawhariyyeh and Mustafa Abu Ali (Habashneh’s husband) – who sought to document their people’s way of life and national struggle. Following the events of Black September in 1970, when the Jordanian army and the Palestine Liberation Organization fought a bloody internecine war, the filmmakers moved to Lebanon and reestablished the PCI in Beirut.

    Meeting with Habashneh in Amman in 2013, Sela heard the story of the Palestinian archives that disappeared, a story she included in her new documentary. “Where to begin, when so much material was destroyed, when a life project falls apart?” Habashneh said to Sela. “I can still see these young people, pioneers, bold, imbued with ideals, revolutionaries, who created pictures and films and documented the Palestinian revolution that the world doesn’t want to see. They refused to be faceless and to be without an identity.”

    The archive established by Habashneh contained forgotten works that documented the Palestinians’ suffering in refugee camps, the resistance to Israel and battles against the IDF, as well as everyday life. The archive contained the films and the raw materials of the PCI filmmakers, but also collected other early Palestinian films, from both before and after 1948.

    Spirit of liberation

    This activity reflects “a spirit of liberation and revolt and the days of the revolution,” Habashneh says in Sela’s film, referring to the early years of the Palestinian national movement. That spirit was captured in underground photographs and with a minimal budget, on film that was developed in people’s kitchens, screened in tents in refugee camps and distributed abroad. Women, children, fighters, intellectuals and cultural figures, and events of historic importance were documented, Habashneh related. “As far as is known, this was the first official Palestinian visual archive,” Sela notes.

    In her conversation with Sela, Habashneh nostalgically recalled other, better times, when the Palestinian films were screened in a Beirut cinematheque, alongside other works with a “revolutionary spirit,” from Cuba, Chile, Vietnam and elsewhere. “We were in contact with filmmakers from other countries, who saw the camera as an instrument in the hands of the revolution and the people’s struggle,” she recalled.

    “Interesting cultural cooperation developed there, centering around revolutionary cinema,” Sela points out, adding, “Beirut was alive with an unprecedented, groundbreaking cultural flowering that was absolutely astonishing in terms of its visual significance.”

    IDF confiscates film archive

    But in 1982, after the IDF entered Beirut, that archive disappeared and was never seen again. The same fate befell two films made by Habashneh herself, one about children, the other about women. In Sela’s documentary, Habashneh wonders aloud about the circumstances in which the amazing collection disappeared. “Is our fate to live a life without a past? Without a visual history?” she asks. Since then, she has managed to reconstruct a small part of the archive. Some of the films turned up in the United States, where they had been sent to be developed. Copies of a few others remained in movie theaters in various countries where they were screened. Now in her seventies, Habashneh continues to pursue her mission, even though, as she told Sela during an early conversation, “the fate of the archive remains a puzzle.”

    What Habashneh wasn’t able to accomplish beginning in 1982 as part of a worldwide quest, Sela managed to do over the course of a few years of research in Israel. She began by locating a former IDF soldier who told her about the day on which several trucks arrived at the building in Beirut that housed a number of Palestinian archives and began to empty it out. That testimony, supported by a photograph, was crucial for Sela, as it corroborated the rumors and stories about the Palestinian archives having been taken to Israel.

    The same soldier added that he had been gripped by fear when he saw, among the photos that were confiscated from the archive, some that documented Israeli soldiers in the territories. He himself appeared in one of them. “They marked us,” he said to Sela.

    Soldiers loot Nashashibi photos & possessions, take photo from corpse

    Another former soldier told Sela about an unusual photo album that was taken (or looted, depending on one’s point of view) from the home of the prominent Nashashibi family in Jerusalem, in 1948. The soldier added that his father, who had served as an IDF officer in the War of Independence, entered a photography studio and made off with its archive, while other soldiers were busy looting pianos and other expensive objects from the Nashashibis. Another ex-soldier testified to having taken a photo from the corpse of an Arab. Over time, all these images found their way to archives in Israel, in particular the IDF Archive.

    Sela discovers IDF archive

    In 2000, Sela, buoyed by her early finds, requested permission from that archive to examine the visual materials that had been seized by the army in the 1980s. The initial response was denial: The material was not in Israel’s hands, she was told.

    “But I knew what I was looking for, because I had soldiers’ testimonies,” she says now, adding that when she persisted in her request, she encountered “difficulties, various restrictions and the torpedoing of the possibility of perusing the material.”

    The breakthrough came when she enlisted the aid of attorneys Michael Sfard and Shlomi Zacharia, in 2008. To begin with, they received word, confirmed by the Defense Ministry’s legal adviser, that various spoils taken in Beirut were now part of the IDF Archive. However, Sela was subsequently informed that “the PLO’s photography archive,” as the Defense Ministry referred in general to photographic materials taken from the Palestinians, is “archival material on matters of foreign affairs and security, and as such is ‘restricted material’ as defined in Par. 7(a) of the Archives Regulations.”

    Then, one day in 2010, Sela received a fax informing her that Palestinian films had been found in the IDF Archive, without elaboration, and inviting her to view them. “There were a few dozen segments from films, and I was astonished by what I saw,” she says. “At first I was shown only a very limited amount of footage, but it was indicative of the whole. On the basis of my experience, I understood that there was more.”

    A few more years of what Sela terms “endless nagging, conversations and correspondence” passed, which resulted in her being permitted to view dozens of segments of additional films, including some that apparently came from Habashneh’s archive. Sela also discovered another Palestinian archive that had been seized by the IDF. Established under the aegis of the PLO’s Cultural Arts Section, its director in the 1970s was the Lod-born painter and historian Ismail Shammout (1930-2006).

    One of the works in that collection is Shammout’s own film “The Urgent Call,” whose theme song was written and performed by the Palestinian singer Zainab Shathat in English, accompanying herself on the guitar. “The film was thought to be lost until I found it in the IDF Archive,” says Sela, who describes “The Urgent Call” as “a cry about the condition of Palestine, its sons and its daughters.”

    Viewing it takes one back in time to the late 1960s and early ‘70s, when the cinema of the Palestinian struggle briefly connected with other international revolutionary film movements.

    Legendary French filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard

    For example, in 1969 and 1970 Jean-Luc Godard, the legendary filmmaker of the French New Wave in cinema, visited Jordan and Lebanon several times with the Dziga Vertov Group of French filmmakers (named after the Soviet pioneer documentarian of the 1920s and ‘30s), who included filmmaker Jean-Pierre Gorin, who worked with Godard in his “radical” period. They came to shoot footage in refugee camps and in fedayeen bases for Godard’s film “Until Victory.” Habashneh told Sela that she and others had met Godard, assisted him and were of course influenced by his work. [Ed. note: Godard’s work on Palestine caused him to be accused of antisemitism by the Washington Post’s Richard Cohen and others. “In Hollywood there is no greater sin,” the Guardian reported.]

    Along with “The Urgent Call” – excerpts from which are included in her “Looted and Hidden” documentary – Sela also found another Shammout work in the IDF Archive. Titled “Memories and Fire,” it chronicles 20th-century Palestinian history, “from the days depicting the idyllic life in Palestine, via the documentation of refugeehood, to the documentation of the organizing and the resistance. To use the terms of the Palestinian cinema scholar and filmmaker George Khleifi, the aggressive fighter took the place of the ill-fated refugee,” she adds.

    Sela also found footage by the Iraqi director Kais al-Zubaidi, who worked for a time in the PLO’s Cultural Arts Section. His films from that period include “Away from Home” (1969) and “The Visit” (1970); in 2006 he published an anthology, “Palestine in the Cinema,” a history of the subject, which mentions some 800 films that deal with Palestine or the Palestinian people. [Ed. note: unfortunately it appears this book has never been translated into English.]

    IDF seals the archive for decades

    Some of the Palestinian movies in the IDF Archive bear their original titles. However, in many other cases this archival material was re-cataloged to suit the Israeli perspective, so that Palestinian “fighters” became “gangs” or “terrorists,” for example. In one case, a film of Palestinians undergoing arms training is listed as “Terrorist camp in Kuwait: Distribution of uniforms, girls crawling with weapons, terrorists marching with weapons in the hills, instruction in laying mines and in arms.”

    Sela: “These films and stills, though not made by Jewish/Israeli filmmakers or military units – which is the central criterion for depositing materials in the Israeli army archive – were transferred to the IDF Archive and subordinated to the rules of the State of Israel. The archive immediately sealed them for many decades and cataloged them according to its terminology – which is Zionist, Jewish and Israeli – and not according to the original Palestinian terminology. I saw places where the word ‘terrorists’ was written on photographs taken by Palestinians. But after all, they do not call themselves as such. It’s part of terminological camouflaging, which subordinated their creative work to the colonial process in which the occupier controls the material that’s captured.”

    Hidden Palestinian history

    Sela’s discoveries, which are of international importance, are not only a research, documentation and academic achievement: They also constitute a breakthrough in regard to the chronicling of Palestinian history. “Palestinian visual historiography lacks many chapters,” she observes. “Many photographs and archives were destroyed, were lost, taken as spoils or plundered in the various wars and in the course of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.”

    From her point of view, the systematic collecting of Palestinian visual materials in the IDF Archive “makes it possible to write an alternative history that counteracts the content created by the army and the military archive, which is impelled by ideological and political considerations.” In the material she found in the army archive, she sees “images that depict the history of the Palestinian people and its long-term ties to this soil and this place, which present an alternative to the Zionist history that denied the Palestinians’ existence here, as well as their culture and history and the protracted tragedy they endured and their national struggle of many years.”

    The result is an intriguing paradox, such as one often finds by digging deep into an archive. The extensive information that Sela found in the IDF Archive makes it possible to reconstruct elements of the pre-1948 existence of the Palestinians and to help fill in the holes of the Palestinian narrative up until the 1980s. In other words, even if Israel’s intention was to hide these items and to control the Palestinians’ historical treasures, its actions actually abet the process of preservation, and will go on doing so in the future.

    Earlier groundbreaking discovery – confiscated Palestinians books & libraries

    Sela’s research on visual archival materials was preceded by another groundbreaking study – dealing with the written word – conducted by Dr. Gish Amit, an expert on the cultural aspects of Zionism at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. Amit chronicled the fate of Palestinian books and libraries that, like the photographs and films Sela found, ended up in Israeli archives – including in the National Library in Jerusalem.

    In his 2014 book, “Ex-Libris: Chronicles of Theft, Preservation, and Appropriating at the Jewish National Library” (Hebrew), Amit trenchantly analyzes the foredoomed failure of any attempt to conceal and control the history of others. According to him, “an archive remembers its forgettings and erasures,” “documents injustice, and thus makes it possible to trace its paths” and “paves a way for forgotten histories which may, one day, convict the owners” of the documents.

    However, Amit also sees the complexity of this story and presents another side of it. Describing the operation in which the Palestinian books were collected by Israeli soldiers and National Library personnel during the War of Independence, he raises the possibility that this was actually an act involving rescue, preservation and accessibility: “On the one hand, the books were collected and not burned or left in the abandoned houses in the Arab neighborhoods that had been emptied of their inhabitants. Had they not been collected their fate would have been sealed — not a trace of them would remain,” he writes, adding, that the National Library “protected the books from the war, the looting and the destruction, and from illegal trade in manuscripts.”

    According to the National Library, it is holding about 6,500 Palestinian books and manuscripts, which were taken from private homes whose owners left in 1948. The entire collection is cataloged and accessible to the general public, but is held under the responsibility of the Custodian of Absentees’ Property in the Finance Ministry. Accordingly, there is no intention, in the near future, of trying to locate the owners and returning the items.

    Israeli control over history

    Sela views the existence of these spoils of war in Israel as a direct expression of the occupation, which she defines, beyond Israel’s physical presence in the territories, as “the control of history, the writing of culture and the shaping of identity.” In her view, “Israel’s rule over the Palestinians is not only geographic but extends also to culture and consciousness. Israel wants to erase this history from the public consciousness, but it is not being successful, because the force of the resistance is stronger. Furthermore, its attempts to erase Palestinian history adversely affect Israel itself in the end.”

    At this point, Sela resorts to a charged comparison, to illustrate how visual materials contribute to the creation of personal and collective identity. “As the daughter of Holocaust survivors,” she says, “I grew up in a home without photographic historical memory. Nothing. My history starts only with the meeting of my parents, in 1953. It’s only from then that we have photos. Before that – nothing.

    “I know what it feels like when you have no idea what your grandmother or grandfather looked like, or your father’s childhood,” she continues. “This is all the more true of the history of a whole people. The construction of identity by means of visual materials is very meaningful. Many researchers have addressed this topic. The fact is that Zionist bodies made and are continuing to make extensive and rational use of [such materials too] over a period that spans decades.”

    Sela admits that there is still much to be done, but as far as she’s concerned, once a crack appeared in the wall, there was no turning back. “There is a great deal of material, including hundreds of films, that I haven’t yet got to,” she notes. “This is an amazing treasure, which contains information about the cultural, educational, rural and urban life of the Palestinian people throughout the 20th century – an erased narrative that needs to be restored to the history books,” she adds.

    Asked what she thinks should be done with the material, she asserts, “Of course it has to be returned. Just as Israel is constantly fighting to retrieve what the Nazis looted from Jews in the Holocaust. The historical story is different, but by the same criterion, practice what you preach. These are cultural and historical materials of the Palestinian people.”

    The fact that these items are being held by Israel “creates a large hole in Palestinian research and knowledge,” Sela avers. “It’s a hole for which Israel is responsible. This material does not belong to us. It has to be returned to its owners. Afterward, if we view it intelligently, we too can come to know and understand highly meaningful chapters in Palestinian history and in our own history. I think that the first and basic stage in the process of conciliation is to know the history of the Other and also your own history of controlling the Other.”

    Defense Ministry response

    A spokesperson for the Defense Ministry, which was asked to comment on the holdings in the IDF Archive, the archive contains 642 “war booty films,” most of which deal with refugees and were produced by the UNRWA (the United Nations refugee relief agency) in the 1960s and 1970s. The ministry also noted that 158 films that were seized by the IDF in the 1982 Lebanon War are listed in orderly fashion in the reading-room catalog and are available for perusal by the general public, including Arab citizens and Palestinians.

    As for the Palestinian photographs that were confiscated, the Defense Ministry stated that there is no orderly record of them. There are 127 files of photographs and negatives in the archive, each of which contains dozens of photographs, probably taken between the 1960s and the 1980s, on a variety of subjects, including visits of foreign delegations to PLO personnel, tours of PLO delegations abroad, Palestinian art and heritage, art objects, traditional attire and Palestinian folklore, factories and workshops, demonstrations, mass parades and rallies held by the PLO, portraits of Arab personalities and PLO symbols.

    The statement adds that a few months ago, crates were located that were stamped by their original owners, “PLO/Department of Information and National Guidance and Department of Information and Culture,” during the evacuation of the archive’s storerooms in the Tzrifin base.

    https://israelpalestinenews.org/old-palestinian-photos-films-hidden-idf-archive-show-different-
    #historicisation #Israël #Palestine #photographie #films #archive #histoire #Khalil_Rassass #Ali_Za’arur
    ping @reka @sinehebdo @albertocampiphoto

    https://seenthis.net/messages/762792 via CDB_77


  • La collection RomArchive contient des éléments de dix sections d’archives : arts visuels, danse, cinéma, flamenco, théâtre et théâtre, littérature, musique, mouvement des droits des Roms, politique de la photographie et voix des victimes. Se concentrant sur la représentation de soi, les objets ont été rassemblés dans des collections privées, des musées, des archives et des bibliothèques du monde entier.
    https://www.romarchive.eu/en

    @reka
    https://66.media.tumblr.com/53575e8a27ad807b09a1d20947745c75/tumblr_inline_pm50d4bGP91ut4ger_540.jpg

    https://www.arte.tv/fr/videos/087575-000-A/un-site-pour-archiver-la-memoire-des-roms

    « Archive Rom » est un site web qui vient d’être créé en Allemagne. Son ambition : documenter la culture et l’art des minorités rom et sinti et lutter contre les discriminations et les préjugés. Cette plateforme présente notamment des expositions en ligne et dispose d’une base de données recensant près de 5 000 objets.

    source : arte journal
    #Roms #archive

    https://seenthis.net/messages/756282 via Vanderling


  • Des archives de journaux « contre-culturels » disponibles en ligne
    https://www.actualitte.com/article/patrimoine-education/des-archives-de-journaux-contre-culturels-disponibles-en-ligne/92536?origin=newsletter
    https://www.actualitte.com/images/facebook/vietnamdem-5c2637e886062.jpg

    Des publications tirées de périodiques radicaux, jusque-là stockées dans des collections spéciales de plusieurs dizaines de bibliothèques et de particuliers différents, sont enfin accessible publiquement en ligne sur la plateforme Independant Voices. Ces documents relatent les différent combats des féministes, du Black Power, des Amérindiens, des activistes anti-guerre ou LGBT de 1951 à 2016.

    Pour accéder à la collection de Independant Voices :
    https://voices.revealdigital.com/cgi-bin/independentvoices

    #Contre-culture #Presse_alternative #Archives

    https://seenthis.net/messages/747658 via Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier


  • #Archives #JeudiPhoto : « les grands nous paraissent grands parce que nous sommes à genoux : levons-nous ! »
    https://www.flickr.com/photos/valkphotos/32430669668

    Flickr

    https://farm5.staticflickr.com/4812/32430669668_636f4352fd_m.jpg

    ValK. a posté une photo :

    Arrivée de la marche Larzac-Paris, Champs Elysées, Paris, les 6 et 7 septembre 2003

    https://farm5.staticflickr.com/4812/32430669668_636f4352fd_b.jpg

    https://seenthis.net/messages/743805 via ¿’ ValK.


  • Alger 1957 - des #Maurice_Audin par milliers

    Après soixante et un ans, le Président de la République française a reconnu officiellement que Maurice Audin a été torturé par des militaires qui l’avaient arrêté à son domicile et que sa mort a été rendue possible par un système légalement institué qui a favorisé les disparitions. Pour tous ceux qui ont lutté depuis 1957 pour faire reconnaître la vérité, c’est une grande victoire — posthume pour l’historien Pierre Vidal-Naquet, le mathématicien Laurent Schwartz, les universitaires Madeleine Rebérioux et Gérard Tronel, engagés dans le Comité Maurice Audin (1957-1963) puis, depuis 2002, dans l’Association Maurice Audin.
    Le meurtre de ce jeune mathématicien de 25 ans, grossièrement maquillé en évasion, fut loin d’être un cas isolé. Ce fut l’un des nombreux cas d’enlèvement, séquestration, torture, suivis souvent de mort, produits, à Alger, de janvier à septembre 1957, par un véritable système de terreur militaire délibérément instauré et rendu possible par des dispositions législatives adoptées par les institutions de la République française. Algérien d’origine européenne, Maurice Audin s’était rangé, avec le parti communiste algérien, du côté de la lutte d’indépendance de ce pays, dans un moment où l’ensemble de la population autochtone d’Alger était la cible d’une terreur visant à la dissuader de faire ce choix et à la maintenir par force sous la domination coloniale.
    Il y eut alors des Maurice Audin par milliers…
    C’est massivement que des hommes et des femmes ont été enlevés, détenus au secret, torturés, et pour certains l’objet d’exécutions sommaires. La seule victoire des responsables de cette terreur, ces « seigneurs de la guerre aux terrifiants caprices », selon les mots de Jean-Paul Sartre dans L’Express, à la publication de La Question d’Henri Alleg, est l’ignorance par l’opinion française de son bilan humain véritable et des noms mêmes de ceux qui ne sont jamais réapparus. Comme pour toutes les répressions de masse en situation coloniale, le statut politique des Algériens autorisait à la fois le recours à des méthodes universellement réprouvées au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et l’absence complète d’attention au nombre et à l’identité des victimes. « Français musulmans » colonisés, sous-citoyens racisés, tout juste sortis officiellement de l’indigénat et dénués d’une existence politique réelle, ils étaient collectivement suspects de complicité avec une « rébellion » qualifiée d’« antifrançaise ». Ils formaient une population dépourvue de recours judiciaire et politique et de moyens d’alerter une opinion française peu disposée à s’inquiéter de leur sort. Quelques cas ont eu un écho. Ceux de Maurice Audin, d’Henri Alleg et de l’avocat algérien Ali Boumendjel, connu de juristes parisiens, torturé et « suicidé » par ses geôliers. Mais pas les autres, restés des invisibles dont le sort n’est jamais devenu une « affaire française ».
    Un vrai républicain, Paul Teitgen, secrétaire général à la préfecture d’Alger, tenta, selon les mots de Pierre Vidal-Naquet, de « comptabiliser les vivants et les morts, ou plutôt les survivants et les disparus ». Mais les « 3 024 disparus » qu’il dénombra dans l’exercice de ses fonctions ne sont qu’un ordre de grandeur plausible, le sort des personnes enlevées par l’armée lui étant largement dissimulé par les militaires.
    C’est dans ce contexte qu’une archive publique devenue accessible en 2017, sur laquelle a travaillé Fabrice Riceputi, est importante. Ce fichier, conservé aux Archives nationales d’Outre-mer (ANOM) depuis la fin de la guerre d’Algérie, dans le fonds d’un service de la préfecture d’Alger, fournit des informations sur une partie conséquente de la masse anonyme des « humiliés dans l’ombre », selon les mots de Paul Teitgen à Robert Lacoste, de la Grande répression d’Alger, appellation préférable à celle, impropre, de « bataille d’Alger ». C’est la source essentielle qui nous permet de publier ici des données sur plus d’un millier d’Algéroises et Algérois dont nous savons trois choses : ils furent arrêtés au cours de l’année 1957 par l’armée française ; leurs proches réclamèrent aux autorités de connaître leur sort, très souvent en vain ; beaucoup furent torturés et certains ne reparurent jamais.
    Librement consultables, environ 850 « fiches de renseignement » remplies entre la fin février et le début d’août 1957 sont ce qui subsiste du fichier du Service des liaisons nord-africaines (SLNA). En septembre 1958, selon un bilan statistique conservé, il en aurait compté 2 049. A ces cas, nous avons ajouté plus d’une centaine d’autres provenant de sources différentes. En particulier du « Cahier vert », publié dans Témoignages et documents en octobre 1959, puis la même année dans Les Temps modernes et aux éditions La Cité, à Lausanne. Et de l’ouvrage L’Affaire des enseignants d’Alger, édité en 1958 par le Comité de défense des enseignants, qui contient de nombreuses plaintes officielles d’européens, communistes ou chrétiens progressistes, victimes et témoins de tortures, en mars et avril 1957, dans l’un des principaux lieux de terreur, la Villa Sésini.
    D’où les plus de mille notices individuelles que nous rendons publiques au lendemain de la déclaration présidentielle du 13 septembre 2018 au sujet du sort de Maurice Audin et de l’institutionnalisation de la torture durant la guerre d’Algérie. Ces notices portent sur des personnes enlevées et séquestrées à Alger, en 1957, dont les proches ont cherché à avoir des nouvelles et dont certaines ne sont jamais réapparues. Leur nombre ne manquera pas de s’accroître lorsque d’autres cas documentés nous seront signalés. Cette publication est aussi un #appel_à_témoignages, notamment vers une #mémoire familiale que nous savons encore vive.
    Puisse ce site contribuer à rendre justice à ces personnes et à mieux faire connaître un pan d’histoire trop longtemps occulté.

    http://1000autres.org/wp-content/themes/codilight-child/bandeau.jpg
    http://1000autres.org
    #Algérie #guerre_d'Algérie #histoire #disparitions #archive #exécutions #torture #France #mémoire_familiale

    cc @reka @albertocampiphoto

    https://seenthis.net/messages/722792 via CDB_77



  • BBC Sound Effects - Research & Education Space
    http://bbcsfx.acropolis.org.uk

    These 16,016 BBC Sound Effects are made available by the BBC in WAV format to download for use under the terms of the RemArc Licence. The Sound Effects are BBC copyright, but they may be used for personal, educational or research purposes, as detailed in the license.

    #opensource #musique #son #bbc #archive

    https://seenthis.net/messages/689140 via albertocampiphoto


  • La bataille du #rail | Les Pieds sur terre
    https://www.franceculture.fr/emissions/les-pieds-sur-terre/la-bataille-du-rail

    De 1936 à aujourd’hui, petites histoires des grands mouvements de grève de #cheminots racontées par des archives de l’#INA soigneusement choisies et mises en regard avec l’actualité.
    En 1911, on pouvait lire dans les colonnes du Figaro la description suivante du cheminot en #grève :

    un ouvrier privilégié dont on voit les prétentions grandir et la mauvaise humeur s’exaspérer à mesure que le patronat lui montre plus d’indulgence.

    Plus de cent ans plus tard, les préjugés n’ont rien perdu de leur vigueur ni le Figaro de sa superbe.
    La nouvelle bataille du rail qui est sur le point de s’engager nous a donné envie de vous proposer à notre tour une petite histoire sonore des grandes heures sociales du chemin de fer, une balade subjective dans nos archives, de 1936 à aujourd’hui, jusqu’à la victoire.

    https://cdn.radiofrance.fr/s3/cruiser-production/2018/03/bbd90c61-dc95-40b6-ab4c-3254ec34c677/738_maxnewsworldfour482236.jpg

    #France_Culture #Pieds_sur_terre #train #luttes_sociales #audio #radio #archives

    https://seenthis.net/messages/678567 via celine.a


  • Yale Launches an Archive of 170,000 Photographs Documenting the Great Depression

    During the Great Depression, The Farm Security Administration—Office of War Information (FSA-OWI) hired photographers to travel across America to document the poverty that gripped the nation, hoping to build support for New Deal programs being championed by F.D.R.’s administration.

    http://cdn8.openculture.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/dorothea-lange.jpg
    http://cdn8.openculture.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/walker-evans.jpg
    http://cdn8.openculture.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/rothstein-3.jpg
    http://www.openculture.com/2014/09/yale-launches-an-archive-of-170000-photographs-of-the-great-depression.
    #grande_dépression #histoire #photographie #archives #open_source
    cc @albertocampiphoto @reka @philippe_de_jonckheere

    https://seenthis.net/messages/677155 via CDB_77



  • La destruction d’archives se heurte à la communauté scientifique
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/020118/la-destruction-d-archives-se-heurte-la-communaute-scientifique

    Le site de conservation des #archives à Pierrefitte Un projet du #ministère_de_la_culture visant à réduire le nombre d’archives publiques afin d’économiser 7 millions d’euros en cinq ans provoque une belle unanimité contre lui. Car les archives n’intéressent pas que les chercheurs : « Des archives publiques bien tenues sont essentielles à un État de droit », rappelle l’historienne Raphaëlle Branche.

    #France


  • Pillés à Beyrouth il y a 35 ans, maintenant projetés à Tel Aviv
    Traduction : SF pour l’Agence Média Palestine | Source : +972
    http://www.agencemediapalestine.fr/blog/2017/12/11/pilles-a-beyrouth-il-y-a-35-ans-maintenant-projetes-a-tel-aviv
    https://972static-rsvpteamltd1.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/%D7%97%D7%95%D7%9E%D7%A8%D7%99-%D7%94%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%94-%D7%9C%D7%A1%D7%A8%D7%98-%D7%96%D7%9B%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%A0%D7%95%D7%AA-%D7%95%D7%90%D7%A9-%D7%A1%D7%98%D7%99%D7%9C%D7%A1-%D7%9E%D7%AA%D7%95%D7%9A-%D7%A1%D7%A8%D7%98%D7%99%D7%99-%D7%A9%D7%9C%D7%9C.jpg A still from the film “Looted and Hidden.”

    Par Rami Younis, le 4 décembre 2017

    « Pillés et cachés » puise dans les archives de films capturés par l’armée israélienne en 1982, et braque les projecteurs sur d’autres biens volés par Israël : l’histoire du cinéma palestinien.

    Des images rares issues des archives des films et photographies palestiniens qui documentent des décennies de l’histoire palestinienne d’avant 1948 et d’après la Nakba voient finalement le jour dans un nouveau film de Rona Sela qui est conservatrice, chercheure en histoire et culture visuelle, et chargée de cours à l’université de Tel Aviv. Presque toutes ces images d’archives ont été confisquées dans les attaques de l’armée israélienne contre le bureau de l’Organisation de Libération de la Palestine à Beyrouth en 1982 : des documents et des photos ont alors été pris.
    (...)
    « Dans le passé, j‘ai recherché de la propagande sioniste datant d’avant l’établissement de l’État d’Israël » a dit Sela, en expliquant ce qui l’a motivée à faire le film. Un des principaux motifs qui revenait constamment était l’image du Juif qui arrive dans une zone désolée, comme si la terre avait attendu que le Juif arrive et la fasse fleurir ».

    « Cela m’a conduite à rechercher des documents de l’histoire palestinienne » a poursuivi Sela. « J’ai cherché dans des matériaux ici et à l’étranger afin de montrer à un public israélien que la Palestine existait avant 1948 ».

    https://seenthis.net/messages/612498

    #archives_palestiniennes

    https://seenthis.net/messages/651628 via Loutre


  • #archives à la une : une nouvelle émission sur Mediapart
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/culture-idees/181117/archives-la-une-une-nouvelle-emission-sur-mediapart

    Tous les mois, en partenariat avec RetroNews, le site de #presse de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, Mediapart vous propose un nouveau et court format vidéo dans lequel des historiens, journalistes, chercheurs ou archivistes viennent commenter une plongée dans les journaux, de 1631 à 1945, à partir d’un montage d’archives.

    #Culture-Idées #BNF #Histoire #Rétronews




  • 17 octobre 1961 - un webdocumentairede Raspouteam
    http://raspou.team/1961/home
    Lectures de témoignages, entretiens avec militants et historiens, #archives

    Avec Simon Abkarian, Ariane Ascaride, Jean-Pierre Darroussin, Jean-Francois Guerlach, Hammou Graïa, Lyes Salem, Robinson Stevenin & Sabrina Ouazani. Et la par­ti­ci­pa­tion de Mohammed Harbi, Neil McMaster, Jean-Luc Einaudi, Raphaëlle Branche, Mathieu Rigouste, Emmanuel Blanchard, Linda Amiri et Tramor Quemeneur.

    http://raspou.team/1961/img/moh/2-carte_wilaya_1961.jpg
    http://raspou.team/1961/img/moh/4-carte_cortege_17oct61.jpg

    #webdocumentaire #17octobre1961 #immigration #bidonvilles #colonialisme #police #pogrom_policier #massacre #Paris #audio #vidéo #histoire

    https://seenthis.net/messages/637792 via colporteur



  • Les documents sur les pensionnats autochtones pourront être détruits Le Devoir - La Presse Candienne - 6 octobre 2017
    http://www.ledevoir.com/societe/justice/509839/les-documents-sur-les-pensionnats-autochtones-pourront-etre-detruits

    Ottawa — La Cour suprême du Canada affirme que les documents détaillant les agressions subies par d’anciens élèves des pensionnats autochtones pourront être détruits.https://cdn.thinglink.me/api/image/664831189957214209/1240/10/scaletowidth
     
    La décision unanime du plus haut tribunal du pays clarifie cet enjeu qui opposait le droit à la vie privée des victimes à l’importance de documenter ce chapitre sombre des relations entre le Canada et les peuples autochtones.
     
    D’anciens élèves ont témoigné des agressions physiques, sexuelles et psychologiques dans le cadre d’une évaluation indépendante visant à leur verser une indemnisation.
     
    La Cour suprême a confirmé le jugement d’un tribunal inférieur indiquant que le matériel devrait être détruit après 15 ans. Des individus peuvent toutefois accepter de préserver leur histoire au Centre national pour la vérité et réconciliation à Winnipeg.
     
    Le gouvernement fédéral n’a donc pas réussi à convaincre les juges que les documents devaient être entièrement préservés afin de s’assurer que ce qui s’est produit dans les pensionnats autochtones ne sera jamais oublié.
     
    Il affirmait que les lois fédérales gouvernant l’accès à l’information, le droit à la vie privée et les archives offraient l’équilibre nécessaire pour conserver les documents ayant une valeur historique tout en protégeant la vie privée et la confidentialité.

    #extermination #déportation #canada #autochtones #agression #pédophilie #Histoire #Archives #destruction #Canada

    https://seenthis.net/messages/635475 via BCE 106,6 Mhz


  • Deux cent documents iconographiques sur les femmes et le féminisme
    http://bibliotheques-specialisees.paris.fr/in/actualites/collections-numerisees/nouveaute/Deux-cent-documents-iconographiques-sur-les-femmes-
    http://bibliotheques-specialisees.paris.fr/in/rest/Thumb/IMAGE/event?id=thumb_b2105b8a-ecdc-43df-9c6e-2b60f33b6d3a.jpg&size=128

    Deux cents nouveaux documents iconographiques numérisés parmi les collections de la BMD ont été récemment mis en ligne. Illustrant bien la diversité des collections, ces documents offrent une variété de thèmes et de supports : photographies, dessins, gravures, journaux illustrés, caricatures, volumes de planches lithographiées.

    Parmi les photographies, plusieurs ensembles sont particulièrement intéressants, comme ces portraits d’aviatrices, telles la pionnière Marie-Louise Driancourt, qui obtint son brevet de pilote en 1911, ou bien Elisabeth Lion, Maryse Hilsz ou Maryse Bastié qui dans les années 1930 accumulèrent les records et firent la une des journaux. Devenues des symboles de la « femme nouvelle », certaines accompagnèrent parfois les féministes dans leurs campagnes.

    #photographie #femmes #féminisme #histoire #archive

    https://seenthis.net/messages/624295 via odilon



  • Les notes du mathématicien Alexandre Grothendieck arrivent sur le net - Libération
    http://www.liberation.fr/sciences/2017/05/05/les-notes-du-mathematicien-alexandre-grothendieck-arrivent-sur-le-net_156
    http://md1.libe.com/photo/1019332-page20.jpg

    Si la question des archives de Montpellier est réglée, il reste maintenant à trouver une solution pour les 65 000 pages de Lasserre. Seront-elles vendues ? Seront-elles accessibles un jour ? Pour l’instant, la Bibliothèque nationale de France (BNF) et l’Institut des hautes études scientifiques (IHES) ne parviennent pas à formuler une offre aux enfants du mathématicien. La question clé étant : ce trésor a-t-il un prix ?

    Ceux qui cliqueront sur les archives Grothendieck doivent être prévenus d’une chose. Il se trouve au pied d’un Himalaya des mathématiques, puisque chaque feuille manuscrite nécessite une dizaine d’heures de travail pour un géomètre algébriste rompu aux « gribouillis » grothendieckien. Les choses misent à plat, le travail commence.

    Pour organiser le décryptage, il faudra sans doute qu’une équipe de mathématiciens s’organise à travers la planète, sur le modèle des Polymaths. Un mathématicien pose une question, et qui détient un bout de la réponse apporte sa contribution. La publication scientifique finale pourrait mentionner une quarantaine de signatures de chercheurs qui ne se seront croisés que numériquement.

    #archives-scientifiques #mathématiques #collaboration

    https://seenthis.net/messages/596213 via Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier


  • Marine #Le_Pen une très riche héritière a la fortune honteuse qui refuse d’aller devant le juge !
    http://www.initiative-communiste.fr/articles/luttes/marine-le-pen-une-tres-riche-heritiere-a-la-fortune-honteuse

    A quelques jours d’un vote décisif, il est important de se souvenir que le vote Le Pen, c’est le vote pour une candidate pas moins empêtrée que Fillon dans les affaires. Une candidate qui est contre la sortie de l’UE de l’Euro et de l’OTAN, mais qui est pour la directive secret des affaires, qui […]

    #2-lutte_des_classes_et_renaissance_communiste #archives #articles #dossier_spécial #Extrême_droite #FN #Marine_Le_Pen


  • Élections 2017 en France — Des idées pour deux scrutins
    http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/dossier/elections-france-2017
    http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/IMG/arton57156.jpg

    Qu’ils s’abstiennent ou se rendent aux urnes, les Français disposeront bientôt d’un nouveau président et d’un nouveau Parlement. Les affaires des uns, les renoncements des autres n’ont pas encore eu raison des deux courants dominants qui se succèdent au pouvoir depuis soixante ans. Mais ​ce bipartisme vacille. Rien ne dit en effet que la société française, minée par le chômage et les inégalités, acceptera indéfiniment de se soumettre aux dogmes néolibéraux de l’Union européenne. Pour le moment, la situation géopolitique, rendue plus incertaine par la nouvelle administration américaine, semble favoriser presque partout les formations politiques conservatrices, voire nationalistes. La colère populaire, qui n’a pas de représentation politique ou médiatique, pourrait-elle se tourner demain vers les partisans de l’émancipation sociale ? Les idées, en tout cas, ne manquent pas. Sélection d’#archives.