• Edward Snowden Explains Blockchain to His Lawyer — and the Rest of Us | American Civil Liberties Union
    https://www.aclu.org/blog/privacy-technology/internet-privacy/edward-snowden-explains-blockchain-his-lawyer-and-rest-us
    https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/styles/metatag_og_image_1200x630/public/field_share_image/web17-circuitboard-socialshare-1200x628.jpg?itok=CaUYD8Dv

    ES: In a word: trust. Imagine an old database where any entry can be changed just by typing over it and clicking save. Now imagine that entry holds your bank balance. If somebody can just arbitrarily change your balance to zero, that kind of sucks, right? Unless you’ve got student loans.

    The point is that any time a system lets somebody change the history with a keystroke, you have no choice but to trust a huge number of people to be both perfectly good and competent, and humanity doesn’t have a great track record of that. Blockchains are an effort to create a history that can’t be manipulated.

    BW: A history of what?

    ES: Transactions. In its oldest and best-known conception, we’re talking about Bitcoin, a new form of money. But in the last few months, we’ve seen efforts to put together all kind of records in these histories. Anything that needs to be memorialized and immutable. Health-care records, for example, but also deeds and contracts.

    ES: Let’s pretend you’re allergic to finance, and start with the example of an imaginary blockchain of blog posts instead of going to the normal Bitcoin examples. The interesting mathematical property of blockchains, as mentioned earlier, is their general immutability a very short time past the point of initial publication.

    For simplicity’s sake, think of each new article published as representing a “block” extending this blockchain. Each time you push out a new article, you are adding another link to the chain itself. Even if it’s a correction or update to an old article, it goes on the end of the chain, erasing nothing. If your chief concerns were manipulation or censorship, this means once it’s up, it’s up. It is practically impossible to remove an earlier block from the chain without also destroying every block that was created after that point and convincing everyone else in the network to agree that your alternate version of the history is the correct one.

    So on the technical level, a blockchain works by taking the data of the new block — the next link in the chain — stamping it with the mathematic equivalent of a photograph of the block immediately preceding it and a timestamp (to establish chronological order of publication), then “hashing it all together” in a way that proves the block qualifies for addition to the chain.

    Think about our first example of your bank balance in an old database. That kind of setup is fast, cheap, and easy, but makes you vulnerable to the failures or abuses of what engineers call a “trusted authority.” Blockchains do away with the need for trusted authorities at the expense of efficiency. Right now, the old authorities like Visa and MasterCard can process tens of thousands of transactions a second, while Bitcoin can only handle about seven. But methods of compensating for that efficiency disadvantage are being worked on, and we’ll see transaction rates for blockchains improve in the next few years to a point where they’re no longer a core concern.

    Yet the hard truth is that the only thing that gives cryptocurrencies value is the belief of a large population in their usefulness as a means of exchange. That belief is how cryptocurrencies move enormous amounts of money across the world electronically, without the involvement of banks, every single day. One day capital-B Bitcoin will be gone, but as long as there are people out there who want to be able to move money without banks, cryptocurrencies are likely to be valued.

    BW: But what about you? What do you like about it?

    ES: I like Bitcoin transactions in that they are impartial. They can’t really be stopped or reversed, without the explicit, voluntary participation by the people involved. Let’s say Bank of America doesn’t want to process a payment for someone like me. In the old financial system, they’ve got an enormous amount of clout, as do their peers, and can make that happen. If a teenager in Venezuela wants to get paid in a hard currency for a web development gig they did for someone in Paris, something prohibited by local currency controls, cryptocurrencies can make it possible. Bitcoin may not yet really be private money, but it is the first “free” money.

    BW: So if Trump tried to cut off your livelihood by blocking banks from wiring your speaking fees, you could still get paid.

    ES: And all he could do is tweet about it.

    BW: The downside, I suppose, is that sometimes the ability of governments to track and block transactions is a social good. Taxes. Sanctions. Terrorist finance.

    We want you to make a living. We also want sanctions against corrupt oligarchs to work.

    ES: If you worry the rich can’t dodge their taxes without Bitcoin, I’m afraid I have some bad news. Kidding aside, this is a good point, but I think most would agree we’re far from the low-water mark of governmental power in the world today. And remember, people will generally have to convert their magic internet money into another currency in order to spend it on high-ticket items, so the government’s days of real worry are far away.

    BW: How would you describe the downsides, if any?

    ES: As with all new technologies, there will be disruption and there will be abuse. The question is whether, on balance, the impact is positive or negative. The biggest downside is inequality of opportunity: these are new technologies that are not that easy to use and still harder to understand. They presume access to a level of technology, infrastructure, and education that is not universally available. Think about the disruptive effect globalization has had on national economies all over the world. The winners have won by miles, not inches, with the losers harmed by the same degree. The first-mover advantage for institutional blockchain mastery will be similar.

    BW: And the internet economy has shown that a platform can be decentralized while the money and power remain very centralized.

    ES: Precisely. There are also more technical criticisms to be made here, beyond the scope of what we can reasonably get into. Suffice it to say cryptocurrencies are normally implemented today through one of two kinds of lottery systems, called “proof of work” and “proof of stake,” which are a sort of necessary evil arising from how they secure their systems against attack. Neither is great. “Proof of work” rewards those who can afford the most infrastructure and consume the most energy, which is destructive and slants the game in favor of the rich. “Proof of stake” tries to cut out the environmental harm by just giving up and handing the rich the reward directly, and hoping their limitless, rent-seeking greed will keep the lights on. Needless to say, new models are needed.

    ES: The tech is the tech, and it’s basic. It’s the applications that matter. The real question is not “what is a blockchain,” but “how can it be used?” And that gets back to what we started on: trust. We live in a world where everyone is lying about everything, with even ordinary teens on Instagram agonizing over how best to project a lifestyle they don’t actually have. People get different search results for the same query. Everything requires trust; at the same time nothing deserves it.

    This is the one interesting thing about blockchains: they might be that one tiny gear that lets us create systems you don’t have to trust. You’ve learned the only thing about blockchains that matters: they’re boring, inefficient, and wasteful, but, if well designed, they’re practically impossible to tamper with. And in a world full of shifty bullshit, being able to prove something is true is a radical development.

    #Blockchain #Edward_Snowden #Pédagogie #Bitcoin

    https://seenthis.net/messages/739066 via Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier


  • Suite de ma série de dessins « Le Tartare »- Le #bitcoin

    Je rassemble les éléments qui m’ont servi pour ce montage pour pas les perdre ou les oublier.

    https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-a0OotJNrqTU/Wtd6ngGQe9I/AAAAAAAAGok/jDRWz1UbLBAwUOxcpcXDi1-mpG3DDh8GwCEwYBhgL/s1600/04-Bitcoin1-test.jpg

    –---------
    A partir du billets de 1 rouble de 1937

    https://c7.alamy.com/comp/D40EY3/1-chervonetz-banknote-vladimir-lenin-russia-1937-D40EY3.jpg

    –—
    https://entrelacsknots.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/leonardo-da-vinci-early-16th-cent-bodleian-library.jpg?w=412&h=460&zoom=2
    Un des dessins de la série qu’a composée Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) du Codex Vallardi acquis par le Louvre en 1856 auprès de l’antiquaire milanais Giuseppe Vallardi.
    https://entrelacs.blog/2015/09/10/etude-dentrelacs-en-cercles-de-leonard-de-vinci

    Cette partie représente une carte d’internet inspirée d’une des propositions de Louis Drulhe que m’a conseillé @fil
    http://internet-atlas.net
    –----

    Le paysage est une mine de bitcoin au tibet, près d’une centrale hydroéléctrique
    https://seenthis.net/local/cache-vignettes/L600xH335/tibetjpg-98e98ed-e44b4.jpg
    https://seenthis.net/messages/686691

    –-----
    En dessous de la ferme/mine à bitcoin il y a un steve ( avatar des joueureuses dans minecraft)
    https://minecraft.novaskin.me/skin/1404133393/Steve-Miner-Test
    –-----
    Dans les angles les symboles évoquent certains aspects des bitcoin,
    Le nucléair pour signalé que le bitcoin est de l’éléctricité convertie en argent.
    Le mot en chinois c’est le province de Shenzhen (深圳市) où sont assemblés la plus part des composantes éléctroniques dans des conditions de travail indignes.
    En bas à gauche c’est l’atome du Tantale, un metal fait à partir de Coltan, pour évoqué les terres rares
    En bas à droite, un symbole des Panama paper pour évoqué la facilité que procure le bitcoin pour échappé aux impots.

    Au Verso les QRcode sont des petites phrases qui m’ont marqués par rapport aux bitcoins :
    Money is memory (rapport aux registes des bitcoin)
    Convert electricity into money
    make money with money
    Cryprological gold - celle là faut que je l’améliore. Peut être quelquechose à propos des 21 millions d’unités - peut être : 21000000 cryptological ingots

    –—
    Le gris du verso est un texte converti en binaire :

    En aucun cas la création de ces nouveaux outils n’entend traiter des causes des problèmes politiques et sociaux. À chaque fois, il s’agit de renforcer par force protocoles un idéal de sécurité. Avec l’apparition du Bitcoin, il ne s’agit donc pas tellement de l’éclosion d’une nouvelle manière de faire du business ni d’un nouveau type de relation économique. Il s’agit bien plutôt de la diffusion généralisée d’une forme de relation sociale et politique, alimentée depuis plusieurs décennies par la jonction de l’idéologie cybernétique et du capitalisme. Aussi, si certaines applications de la Blockchain peuvent paraître constituer un progrès c’est d’abord parce que notre monde a été bureaucratisé à outrance, organisé en un vaste réseau de flux, aseptisé pour être d’autant mieux surveillé, designé pour être fonctionnaliste et individualiste. « Le désert croît », disait Nietzsche. La Blockchain sculpte et organise les dunes pour qu’il devienne davantage praticable.

    source : https://seenthis.net/messages/677623

    le texte converis donne :

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    http://www.supportduweb.com/convertisseur-textes-binaire-code-ascii-numerique-ordinateur-secret-en
    –------------

    #zuckerberk #mad_meg

    https://seenthis.net/messages/687949 via mad meg


  • #Bitcoin Bitterness Starts to Make Messy Divorces Even Worse - Bloomberg
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-02-26/bitcoin-bitterness-starts-to-make-messy-divorces-even-worse

    • Cryptocurrencies make it easier for a spouse to hide assets
    • Volatility means it’s difficult to determine the valuation

    Divorces are messy, and cryptocurrencies are helping to make them a whole lot more so.

    Virtual currencies such as Bitcoin and Ethereum are a new challenge for U.K. lawyers, plagued with volatility and secrecy that is extending the already painful process of dividing a couple’s assets.

    The rising popularity of Bitcoin — and for a while at least, its rising value — means more separations involve the currency, which is difficult to trace and hard to value. Although parties have a duty to provide full disclosure of their assets in a divorce, the anonymous nature of cryptocurrencies potentially make them a safe haven for spouses wishing to hide their money from a warring partner.

    https://seenthis.net/messages/672243 via Simplicissimus


  • Pologne : la banque centrale déclare la guerre aux cryptomonnaies
    https://courrierdeuropecentrale.fr/pologne-banque-centrale-declare-guerre-aux-cryptomonnaies

    La #Banque_centrale_polonaise est accusée d’avoir financée une « campagne de dénigrement » sur #YouTube contre les cryptomonnaies, selon les informations du magazine économique Business Insider.

    #Société #bitcoin #Cryptomonnaie #une-sous


  • L’Islande utilise plus d’énergie pour les cryptomonnaies que pour ses logements RTBF - Belga - 13 Février 2018
    https://www.rtbf.be/info/economie/detail_l-islande-utilise-plus-d-energie-pour-les-cryptomonnaies-que-pour-ses-lo

    Le « minage » de cryptomonnaies en Islande pourrait consommer plus d’énergie électrique que les logements au cours de l’année 2018, indique mardi la compagnie énergétique Hitaveita Sudurnesja Orkas sur la BBC.

    Selon le porte-parole de la compagnie, Johann Snorri Sigurbergsson, les centres informatiques sont de plus en plus nombreux sur l’île. Souvent, il s’agit d’entreprises qui veulent se « verdir ». La quasi totalité de l’énergie islandaise est issue de sources renouvelables, comme la géothermie ou l’hydraulique.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGhP9U-3bLs


    Mais ces centres sont également utilisés pour le minage. Et ces fermes de minage, des entrepôts abritant des ordinateurs puissants qui créent des Bitcoin ou d’autres cryptomonnaies en résolvant des calculs complexes, ont besoin d’énormément d’énergie. Et leur nombre grandissant pourrait mettre l’Islande dans une situation délicate, puisque sa production énergétique pourrait ne plus couvrir la demande.

    D’après Johann Snorri Sigerbgsson, la consommation des fermes de minage - notamment pour refroidir les ordinateurs - sera de 840 GWh annuellement. L’ensemble des ménages islandais consomment 700 GWh sur la même période.

    #énergie #géothermie #hydraulique #gaspillage #Islande #cryptomonnaies #bitcoin #économie #blockchain #crypto-monnaie

    https://seenthis.net/messages/668809 via BCE 106,6 Mhz


  • Beyond the Bitcoin Bubble | The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/16/magazine/beyond-the-bitcoin-bubble.html
    https://static01.nyt.com/images/2018/01/21/magazine/21mag-cryptocurrency1-copy/21mag-cryptocurrency1-facebookJumbo.jpg

    (…) You may be inclined to dismiss these transformations. After all, #Bitcoin and Ether’s runaway valuation looks like a case study in irrational exuberance. And why should you care about an arcane technical breakthrough that right now doesn’t feel all that different from signing in to a website to make a credit card payment?

    But that dismissal would be shortsighted. If there’s one thing we’ve learned from the recent history of the internet, it’s that seemingly esoteric decisions about software architecture can unleash profound global forces once the technology moves into wider circulation. If the email standards adopted in the 1970s had included public-private key cryptography as a default setting, we might have avoided the cataclysmic email hacks that have afflicted everyone from Sony to John Podesta, and millions of ordinary consumers might be spared routinized identity theft. If Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web, had included a protocol for mapping our social identity in his original specs, we might not have Facebook.

    The true believers behind #blockchain platforms like Ethereum argue that a network of distributed trust is one of those advances in software architecture that will prove, in the long run, to have historic significance. That promise has helped fuel the huge jump in cryptocurrency valuations. But in a way, the Bitcoin bubble may ultimately turn out to be a distraction from the true significance of the blockchain. The real promise of these new technologies, many of their evangelists believe, lies not in displacing our currencies but in replacing much of what we now think of as the internet, while at the same time returning the online world to a more decentralized and egalitarian system. If you believe the evangelists, the blockchain is the future. But it is also a way of getting back to the internet’s roots.

    https://seenthis.net/messages/662083 via tbn


  • Le #bitcoin fait entrevoir la libre entreprise bancaire
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/economie/080118/le-bitcoin-fait-entrevoir-la-libre-entreprise-bancaire

    Le désordre monétaire étatique, c’est maintenant. Il est défendu par tous ceux qui voient dans les #cryptomonnaies une menace. Une technologie numérique « disruptive » pourrait-elle y apporter une solution et donner naissance à un nouvel ordre monétaire ? Interrogations.

    #Economie #blockchain #Bretton_Woods #Bundesbank #Charles_Gave #Ludwig_von_Mises #Milton_Friedman #or #Satoshi_Nakamoto


  • La #Korona veut devenir la #crypto-monnaie n°1 en Europe de l’Est
    https://hu-lala.org/korona-bitcoin-europe-de-est

    La Korona va faire son grand retour au mois de mars sous la forme d’une nouvelle crypto-monnaie régionale. Il s’agira, selon ses développeurs, de la première crypto-monnaie basée sur la #blockchain en Europe centrale et orientale. Cent ans tout juste après la disparition de la couronne austro-hongroise, la Korona va faire son grand retour au début du mois de mars ! Ses concepteurs l’affirment, il s’agira de la première crypto-monnaie régionale basée sur la technologie blockchain

    #Société #Article_payant #bitcoin #Pays_sicule


  • Les monnaies locales en quête d’un nouveau souffle
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/291217/les-monnaies-locales-en-quete-dun-nouveau-souffle

    Claudine Baudin, Paule Génillard, et leur #monnaie_locale franco-suisse, le léman © Fanny Hardy. © Fanny Hardy Le #bitcoin fut la devise vedette de 2017. Mais derrière ce sulfureux emblème des monnaies complémentaires se cache une myriade d’autres initiatives locales. Plongée dans l’univers précaire et mystérieux des “MLC” françaises. Une enquête de nos partenaires Mediacités.

    #France #Economie #Lyon #Nantes #Toulouse


  • Gonette, eusko, sol-violette et les autres : les dilemmes des monnaies locales
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/291217/gonette-eusko-sol-violette-et-les-autres-les-dilemmes-des-monnaies-locales

    Claudine Baudin, Paule Génillard, et leur #monnaie_locale franco-suisse, le léman © Fanny Hardy. © Fanny Hardy Le #bitcoin, avec ses spéculateurs et ses zones d’ombre, fut la devise vedette de 2017. Mais derrière ce sulfureux emblème des monnaies complémentaires se cache une myriade d’autres initiatives, locales et ancrées dans l’économie des territoires. Plongée dans l’univers précaire et mystérieux des “MLC” françaises. Une enquête de nos partenaires Mediacités.

    #France #Economie #Lyon #Nantes #Toulouse


  • Gonettes, eusko, sol-violette et les autres : les dilemmes des monnaies locales
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/291217/gonettes-eusko-sol-violette-et-les-autres-les-dilemmes-des-monnaies-locale

    Claudine Baudin, Paule Génillard, et leur #monnaie_locale franco-suisse, le Léman © Fanny Hardy. © Fanny Hardy Le #bitcoin, avec ses spéculateurs et ses zones d’ombre, fut la devise vedette de 2017. Mais derrière ce sulfureux emblème des monnaies complémentaires se cache une myriade d’autres initiatives, locales et ancrées dans l’économie des territoires. Plongée dans l’univers précaire et mystérieux des “MLC” françaises. Une enquête de nos partenaires Mediacités.

    #France #Economie #Lyon #Nantes #Toulouse


  • El “bitcoin”, fiebre del oro digital – Por Paul Walder
    https://www.nodal.am/2017/12/bitcoin-fiebre-del-oro-digital-paul-walder

    Los conceptos vertidos en esta sección no reflejan necesariamente la línea editorial de Nodal. Consideramos importante que se conozcan porque contribuyen a tener una visión integral de la región. El “bitcoin”, la criptomoneda más popular, superó con creces...

    [Esto es un resumen. Visita la Web para la nota completa y más!]

    #Nodal_Economía #bitcoin #moneda_digital #nodal_economía


  • Après la chute de vendredi, le #bitcoin reprend des couleurs
    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/economie/261217/apres-la-chute-de-vendredi-le-bitcoin-reprend-des-couleurs

    Le bitcoin a vu son cours plonger de 30% vendredi, avant de se reprendre en début de semaine. Promesse d’avenir pour les uns, #bulle pour d’autres : cette #cryptomonnaie, l’une des vedettes financières de 2017, reste mal connue. Qu’y a-t-il derrière la « folie bitcoin » ?

    #Economie #Finance






  • In China’s Hinterlands, Workers Mine Bitcoin for a Digital Fortune - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/13/business/bitcoin-mine-china.html
    https://static01.nyt.com/images/2017/09/14/business/14chinabitcoin-top/14chinabitcoin-top-facebookJumbo.jpg

    One of the largest sources of #Bitcoin can be found in the grasslands of #Inner_Mongolia, despite Chinese skepticism over its potential for risk.

    By CAO LI and GIULIA MARCHISEPT. 13, 2017

    #photo #chine

    https://seenthis.net/messages/630324 via Fil


  • Bitcoin : peut-on arrêter ce monstre énergivore ?
    https://usbeketrica.com/article/bitcoin-peut-on-arreter-ce-monstre-energivore
    https://static.usbeketrica.com/images/thumb_840xh/599d5812308c4.jpg

    Selon les sources, ce réseau #Bitcoin consommerait aujourd’hui entre 300 MW et 10 GW, soit plus ou moins la consommation d’#électricité de l’Irlande (3 GW). Autre comparaison éloquente : la blockchain Bitcoin consommerait à elle seule 100 fois la puissance utilisée par l’ensemble des serveurs de Google. Et encore, le Bitcoin n’est-il utilisé que par une très petite minorité d’individus. « Imaginons que les monnaies de type bitcoin se généralisent. La masse monétaire mondiale en circulation aujourd’hui est estimée à 11 000 milliards de dollars. La consommation d’#énergie correspondante devrait donc s’élever à plus de 4000 GW, soit 8 fois la consommation électrique de la France, et deux fois celle des États-Unis », écrivent sur theconversation.com Fabrice Flipo et Michel Berne, de l’Institut Mines - Télécom.

    https://seenthis.net/messages/625115 via nicod_



  • #Bitcoin cash is already the third most valuable cryptocurrency — Quartz
    https://qz.com/1044413/bitcoin-cash-is-already-the-third-most-valuable-cryptocurrency

    now that miners are crunching 6.4 million terahashes per second on the bitcoin network. That consumes an estimated 15 terawatt hours of electricity a year, putting the bitcoin network’s consumption between Turkmenistan and North Korea, if it were ranked with countries.

    #fork #bitcoin_cash

    https://seenthis.net/messages/620337 via Fil




  • Ethereum’s Boy King Is Thinking About Giving Up the Mantle - Motherboard
    https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/ethereums-boy-king-is-thinking-about-giving-up-the-mantle
    https://video-images.vice.com/articles/58fcf1a12d91206629294e32/lede/1492973323042-IMG_5696.jpeg

    Buterin’s politics reveal the origins of his belief in economic incentives. When I asked which political writers he’s interested in, he listed off the major libertarian thinkers: Mises, Hayek, Friedman, Sowell, Rothbard, Rand. He used to think that the world was a contest between “centralized, evil” politicians and corporations, he explained, and the “good, virtuous” people. But the political tumult of 2016 changed his mind—he now says he has more in common with Angela Merkel than with Trump supporters or militant anti-fascists. He doesn’t think everybody’s nice anymore; the world is split into “tribes,” he said, and the only way to make them work together is with money.

    #Ayn_Rand #ethereum #bitcoin #crypto

    https://seenthis.net/messages/594543 via Fil