• Nuclear test to dampen ties with China, escalate tensions - Global Times

    China on Wednesday said it was not notified of and “firmly” opposes North Korea’s latest nuclear test, with analysts believing the test will severely affect relations between the two countries and escalate geopolitical tensions.

    “China is steadfast in its position that the Korean Peninsula should be denuclearized and nuclear proliferation should be prevented to maintain peace and stability in Northeast Asia,” foreign ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying announced at a press briefing on Wednesday.

    China will make solemn representations with North Korea, the foreign ministry said Wednesday.

    China knew nothing about the test before North Korea announced that it had done so, Hua said when asked if China had been informed ahead of time.

    “We strongly urge North Korea to honor its commitment to denuclearize, and to cease any action that may deteriorate the situation,” Hua said.

    North Korea on Wednesday said it successfully tested a miniaturized hydrogen nuclear device.

    The test, the fourth time the isolated state has detonated a nuclear device, was ordered by its leader Kim Jong-un, and was successfully conducted at 10 am local time.

    “The statement shows China’s consistent attitude toward the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, as well as its discontent over North Korea’s failure to provide China with advance notice,” a Beijing-based professor, who requested anonymity, told the Global Times on Wednesday.

    “Bilateral relations between China and North Korea are experiencing an abnormal phase. The lack of high-level visits and incidents, such as the cancelation of the Moranbong Band’s performance in China, have already cooled relations. Launching the nuclear test without informing China would make things even worse,” he said.

    His views were echoed by Cui Zhiying, director of the Korean Peninsula Research Center at Tongji University, who said China may join other countries in discussing the situation soon, as the nuclear test goes against the country’s regional strategy.

    North Korea’s nuclear test is expected to have a significant global impact. 

    “Currently, ties between the Koreas show no signs of recovering. The US is still applying its ’Strategic Patience’ policy, declining North Korea’s demands. That is why North Korea wanted to announce a successful test of a hydrogen bomb at this time,” Jin Qiangyi, director of Asia Research Center, China’s Yanbian University, told the Global Times.

    Ren Weidong, an associate research fellow at the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, said the frequent military drills conducted by the US, Japan and South Korea around the Korean peninsula have placed great pressure on North Korea.

    Since conventional weapons did not adequately deal with the threat, North Korea naturally turned to nuclear weapons, which are the most efficient and effective security guarantee for them, Ren said.

    The North Korean nuclear issue has always been at the center of clashes with world powers. It provides the US an excuse to deploy its military power in the Far East, while Japan seizes on it to militarize, Gao Fei, a political scientist at the China Foreign Affairs University, told the Global Times.

    Global reaction

    The US said Wednesday it could not confirm North Korea’s claims, but added that the US would respond appropriately to provocations and defend its allies.

    Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said that Tokyo will make a “firm response” to North Korea at the UN Security Council.

    South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se met with the US ambassador and the commander of the US military in South Korea to discuss North Korea’s nuclear test, while the South Korean military was placed on alert as it vowed to forge a united stance with the international community to punish North Korea for the test, Yonhap News reported.

    The nuclear test may lead to the deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system in South Korea, which may provoke China and Russia, experts said.

    “It offers the US and its allies an excuse to counterbalance China’s and Russia’s influence in the region,” Gao said.

    Russia slammed the test as a “flagrant violation” of international law, while the EU said the test was a “grave violation” of UN resolutions.

    India Wednesday also condemned the test and urged North Korea to refrain from actions that affect peace. The UN Security Council is planning to hold an emergency meeting to discuss North Korea’s latest action.

    UN chief Ban Ki-moon Wednesday demanded North Korea to cease any nuclear activities and meet its obligations for verifiable denuclearization. He called the test “profoundly destabilizing for regional security.”

    Wang Haifeng, Fan Lingzhi, Liu Xin contributed to this story

    #CoréeDuNord #Chine

  • La terreur islamiste qu’une journaliste française souhaite à la Chine

    Au commencement, c’était pour déloger le régime communiste d’Afghanistan, que l’islamo-terrorisme a été conçu. Nous en sommes aux mêmes modes, en fin de parcours, d’hostilité aux effets désastreux. Certains journalistes dédaignent, ou ne dénoncent pas, cette violence, selon le terrain où ils la croisent. Pour certains cas, elle est souhaitable comme remède à l’ennemi idéologique. Ursula Gauthier, journaliste du Nouvel-Obs... par Populi-Scoop Ursula Gauthier, journaliste française a été expulsée de Chine, (...)

    vie, parti, politique, agissements, internes, situation, association, organisation, humanitaire, intérêt général,

    / censure, presse, journaux, dictature, expressions, liberté, journaliste, poète, poésie, livre, écrits, #diplomatie,_sécurité,_commerce,_économie_mondiale, Terrorisme , islamisme , (...)

    #vie,parti,_politique,_agissements,_internes,_situation,_association,_organisation,_humanitaire,_intérêt_général, #censure,presse,_journaux,_dictature,_expressions,_liberté #_journaliste,_poète,_poésie,_livre,_écrits #Terrorisme_,_islamisme,Al-Qaeda,politique, #France,_immigration,_marche,_beurs,_discrimination,_racisme,_intégration #fait_divers,_société,_fléau,_délinquance,_religion,_perdition #Chine,_réforme,_développement,_environnement,_Asie,

  • Chinese firms learn to cope with resistance to Cambodian projects - Global Times

    The Sesan and Srepok rivers in Stung Treng Province, seven hours’ drive from the country’s capital Phnom Penh, are two major tributaries of the Mekong. Located near the confluence of the two rivers, the Lower Sesan 2 Dam is now 40 percent complete.

    If it begins operation when scheduled in late 2017, it will have a capacity of 400 megawatts that will help satisfy demand for electricity in a country that currently imports much of its power.

    The dam is the first overseas investment project undertaken by Hydrolancang, a subsidiary of China Huaneng Group, one of the largest power companies in China.

    The project was approved by the Cambodian government in 2012. As a build-operate-transfer project, the ownership of the dam will be transferred to Cambodia after 40 years of operation by Hydrolancang.

    However, since the start, it has been dogged by controversies around potential environmental damage and its impact on nearby villagers.

    “There are still people who don’t want to move. More than 5,000 people have to be reallocated. It’s not always very clear what the compensation is and it varies depending on the situation and depending on the individuals,” Stephanie Jensen-Cormier, China Program Director of International Rivers, an NGO that closely monitors the biodiversity of rivers and the rights of communities that depend on rivers, told the Global Times.

    A 2012 study by US and Cambodian researchers estimates that the dam, once constructed, will reduce fish biomass in the Mekong system by more than 9 percent, because it will obstruct the movement of fish and at least 50 species will face extinction.

    Tensions and divisions have sprung up within affected communities among those who want to accept compensation provided by Hydrolancang and those who don’t.

    Srekor 1 and 2 villages are among the affected villages along the Sesan River. In 2014, residents sent an open statement to local authorities, demanding the project halt.

    In the village, red signs with “LSS2” (abbreviation for Lower Sesan 2) can be seen on some houses, which means those households have already been measured and the owners have agreed to accept compensation and move to resettlement areas. Those who are not willing to move have hung a striking sign on a tree, reading, “We will die in the village even if the dam is built.”

    Mekong Sheak, head of Srekor 1 village, told the Global Times that he fears that after the dam is built the area’s deep forests will all be gone and there will be no fish in the river.

    Feng Lin, deputy director of the general department of Hydro Power Lower Sesan 2 Co Ltd, a joint enterprise of the Royal Group of Cambodia and China’s Hydrolancang in charge of the dam project, said the company was aware of villagers’ concerns and has designed a fish passage which will allow fish to move freely.

    But villagers said they have other concerns.

    “We have grandmothers buried in the land. If we leave, they will make us poorer and sick,” said 58-year-old Pha Vy. She was one of the community representatives from Srekor 2 village that favored sending the open statement.

    “Their ancestors are very important. They are unhappy if they have to move and leave their ancestors behind. They say somebody would die because the ancestors would punish them. They believe that the forests have spirits. That’s the way they live their lives,” Jensen-Cormier told the Global Times.

    #Chine #Cambodge #Barrages_hydrauliques

  • An Insider’s View of Chinese-Russian Relations | Foreign Affairs

    Beijing and Moscow Are Close, but 
Not Allies
    By Fu Ying
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    At a time when Russian relations with the United States and western European countries are growing cold, the relatively warm ties between China and Russia have attracted renewed interest. Scholars and journalists in the West find themselves debating the nature of the Chinese-Russian partnership and wondering whether it will evolve into an alliance.

    Since the end of the Cold War, two main views have tended to define Western assessments of the Chinese-Russian relationship and predictions of its future. The first view holds that the link between Beijing and Moscow is vulnerable, contingent, and marked by uncertainties—a “marriage of convenience,” to use the phrase favored by many advocates of this argument, who see it as unlikely that the two countries will grow much closer and quite possible that they will begin to drift apart. The other view posits that strategic and even ideological factors form the basis of Chinese-Russian ties and predicts that the two countries—both of which see the United States as a possible obstacle to their objectives—will eventually form an anti-U.S., anti-Western alliance.

    Neither view accurately captures the true nature of the relationship. The Chinese-Russian relationship is a stable strategic partnership and by no means a marriage of convenience: it is complex, sturdy, and deeply rooted. Changes in international relations since the end of the Cold War have only brought the two countries closer together. Some Western analysts and officials have speculated (and perhaps even hoped) that the ongoing conflicts in Syria and Ukraine, in which Russia has become heavily involved, would lead to tensions between Beijing and Moscow—or even a rupture. But that has not happened.

    Nevertheless, China has no interest in a formal alliance with Russia, nor in forming an anti-U.S. or anti-Western bloc of any kind. Rather, Beijing hopes that China and Russia can maintain their relationship in a way that will provide a safe environment for the two big neighbors to achieve their development goals and to support each other through mutually beneficial cooperation, offering a model for how major countries can manage their differences and cooperate in ways that strengthen the international system.


    On several occasions between the end of the nineteenth century and the middle of the twentieth century, China entered into an alliance with the Russian empire and its successor, the Soviet Union. But every time, the arrangement proved short-lived, as each amounted to nothing more than an expediency between countries of unequal strength. In the decades that followed, the two powerful communist-led countries muddled through, occasionally cooperating but often riven by rivalry and mistrust. In 1989, in the waning years of Soviet rule, they finally restored normalcy to their relations. They jointly declared that they would develop bilateral relations based on “mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual nonaggression, noninterference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.” Two years later, the Soviet Union disintegrated, but Chinese-Russian relations carried on with the principle of “no alliance, no conflict, and no targeting any third country.”

    Soon thereafter, the newborn Russian Federation embraced the so-called Atlanticist approach. To win the trust and help of the West, Russia not only followed Western prescriptions for economic reform but also made concessions on major security issues, including reducing its stockpile of strategic nuclear weapons. However, things didn’t turn out the way the Russians had hoped, as the country’s economy tanked and its regional influence waned. In 1992, disappointed with what they saw as unfulfilled pledges of American and European assistance and irritated by talk of NATO’s eastward expansion, the Russians began to pay more attention to Asia. That year, China and Russia announced that each would regard the other as a “friendly country” and issued a joint political statement stipulating that “the freedom of people to choose their own development paths should be respected, while differences in social systems and ideologies should not hamper the normal progress of relations.”

    #Chine #Russie

  • BLENDING IVORY: China’s Old Loopholes, New Hopes – The Report - Elephant Action League

    – Legitimate businesses and business people participate in and facilitate the laundering of illicit ivory through the legal ivory market by such means as 1) importing supposedly pre-ban, antique, and trophy hunting ivory, 2) the manipulation of the ivory registration system within China, 3) trading ivory privately and illegally without following the government’s guidelines and restrictions, and 4) the use of the existing huge illegal raw ivory stocks (>1,000 tons) in the hands of a few traders. 
    – Chinese traders now import ivory mainly via Hong Kong (or purchase worked ivory in Hong Kong), “legalize” it, and re-export the ivory to mainland China.

    #rhino #ivoire #trafic #chine #hongkong #braconnage

    http://seenthis.net/messages/445601 via Fil

  • Ad in US news highlights Taiwan role
    Chinapost, le 03 janvier 2016

    Ad in US news highlights Taiwan role

    Source : http://m.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/2016/01/03/455103/Ad-in.htm

    WASHINGTON — The Republic of China (Taiwan) government placed an advertisement in a U.S. newspaper Friday to highlight the important role played by Taiwan in the Asia-Pacific region and the peaceful purpose of Taiping Island, the largest of the disputed Spratly Islands controlled by Taiwan in the South China Sea.


  • La terreur islamiste qu’une journaliste française souhaite à la Chine

    Au commencement, c’était pour déloger le régime communiste d’Afghanistan, que l’islamo-terrorisme a été conçu. Nous en sommes aux mêmes modes, en fin de parcours, d’hostilité aux effets désastreux. Certains journalistes dédaignent, ou ne dénoncent pas, cette violence, selon le terrain où ils la croisent. Pour certains cas, elle est souhaitable comme remède à l’ennemi idéologique. Ursula Gauthier, journaliste du Nouvel-Obs... par Populi-Scoop Ursula Gauthier, journaliste française a été expulsée de Chine, (...)

    vie, parti, politique, agissements, internes, situation, association, organisation, humanitaire, intérêt général,

    / censure, presse, journaux, dictature, expressions, liberté, journaliste, poète, poésie, livre, écrits, #diplomatie,_sécurité,_commerce,_économie_mondiale, Terrorisme , islamisme , (...)

    #vie,parti,_politique,_agissements,_internes,_situation,_association,_organisation,_humanitaire,_intérêt_général, #censure,presse,_journaux,_dictature,_expressions,_liberté #_journaliste,_poète,_poésie,_livre,_écrits #Terrorisme_,_islamisme,Al-Qaeda,politique, #France,_immigration,_marche,_beurs,_discrimination,_racisme,_intégration #fait_divers,_société,_fléau,_délinquance,_religion,_perdition #Chine,_réforme,_développement,_environnement,_Asie,

  • Le triangle de la géopolitique économique : énergie, #dollar, politique monétaire

    Après quarante ans d’interruption, le Congrès des États-Unis vient d’autoriser à nouveau l’exportation de #pétrole à partir du territoire américain. Une décision hautement symbolique, illustrant la mutation en cours dans les grands équilibres de la géopolitique économique. Analyse, en collaboration avec #Kenneth_Courtis.

    #Economie #Abenomics #Chine #Crise #Etats-Unis #Fed #Janet_Yellen #Partenariat_Transpacifique #Russie #yuan

  • How Clocks Created Time for Sino-European Ties
    Among the first etiquette rules taught to a student of Chinese language and culture is one I have always found curious: never give a clock as a gift. To gift a clock or a watch, we are warned, is to visit bad luck upon the recipient. As often the case in China, this superstition is rooted in language: the words for giving a clock (song zhong) sound like those for arranging a funeral or a burial.
    But gifting a clock has not always been considered bad luck in China. On the contrary, clocks, watches, and elaborate timepieces were among the most valued gifts an emperor or official could receive during the Ming and Qing dynasties. European-made clocks and timekeeping technology played a vital role in the cultural exchange between China and Europe from the 17th to the 19th centuries. Many of them are still on display in the Hall of Clocks and Watches at the Forbidden City, also known as Beijing’s Palace Museum.
    It all started in the late 1500s when Jesuit priests were looking for a way to enter China to proselytize their faith. Italian priest Alessandro Valignano, who headed the Jesuit mission in the Far East, was a great admirer of China and insisted that the only way to approach the nation was through a position of respect. He thus recruited Jesuits who were willing and able to immerse themselves in China’s language, culture, history and philosophy. Valignano likewise decided that the aspect of European culture that would most interest China’s elite was science, since he perceived scientific understanding in China to be much less developed than in Europe. He thus adopted a doctrine known as propagation fidei per scientias, or propagating the faith through science.

  • China Cracks Down on Politically Incorrect Maps - CityLab


    Ouh la, j’ai eu chaud (retrospectivement) !


    When it comes to maps, China isn’t messing around.

    Starting next year, you don’t want to be caught with the “wrong” maps—that is, maps containing content “that endangers the country’s sovereignty, safety and interests,” according to a statement by China’s government mapping official Le Weibin.

    In an effort to “boost” the mapmaking industry—and clamp down on maps that run counter to the government’s stance on issues like Taiwan’s independence and the territorial dispute over the South China Sea—China announced new regulations earlier this year on the creation, distribution, and publication of both print and online maps. The government will be monitoring maps for violations like “errors in compilation” and “leaks of secret geographic information and personal information,” according to China’s official state media, Xinhua.

    Also included in this new set of regulations, which will replace mapping laws drawn up in 1995, is a section dedicated to regulating the fairly young industry of online mapping. It requires all online mapping data to be hosted by servers inside the country, and all GPS providers to obtain a cartography certificate.

    #chine #cartographie #manipulation #frontières #territoires_contestés #mer_de_chine_méridionale

    http://seenthis.net/messages/443338 via Reka

  • #Chine : #Xi_Jinping continue de renforcer son pouvoir

    L’année 2015 a marqué une étape fondamentale dans la révolution silencieuse menée par le nouvel homme fort de la République populaire de Chine. #répression de la société civile, purges, centralisation du pouvoir, sont autant d’éléments clefs du style de gouvernement du secrétaire général du Parti.

    #International #Asie #Droits_de_l'homme #Parti_communiste_chinois

  • Réorganisation de l’arléPLA to announce overhaul: five ’strategic zones’ will replace regional commands, most army HQ to be scrapped | South

    Réforme de l’armée chinoise
    China Morning Post

    The most striking features of the proposals for the five new military zones are a vast new West zone that makes up more than half the country and a larger North zone that will concentrate on Mongolia, the Russian Far East and the Korean peninsula.

    The Post reported on Tuesday that the changes to the old military command system were expected to be completed by the end of the month and that the new five strategic areas, also referred to as combat zones, could be up and running as early as January 1.

    Sources said plans were nearing completion for the new West zone – by far the largest of the five – to include more than a third of the nation’s land-based military.

    The area is home to only 22 per cent of the country’s population, many from the ethnic minorities groups and non-Han Chinese.

    “The West combat zone will concentrate on threats in Xinjiang (新疆) and Tibet and other minority areas, close to Afghanistan and other states that are home to training bases for separatists, terrorists and extremists,” one of the sources said.
    #Chine #armée

    Another source close to the army said the proposal had been revised in recent weeks to move the West zone headquarters to Urumqi instead of Chengdu or

  • Washington vend des frégates à Taïwan et provoque la colère de Pékin - Le Point

    Le contrat américain intervient dans un contexte de fortes tensions en mer de Chine, Pékin soulevant l’ire de ses voisins en revendiquant sa souveraineté sur la quasi-totalité de cette mer. « L’administration a notifié au Congrès aujourd’hui la vente d’un ensemble d’armes défensives à Taïwan pour 1,83 milliard de dollars », a annoncé mercredi le département d’État dans un communiqué. Cette requête, en vue d’un très probable feu vert sous 30 jours du Congrès républicain, comprend deux « frégates de type Perry, des missiles antichars, des véhicules amphibies » ainsi que divers systèmes électroniques de guidage et des « missiles sol-air Stinger ».


    • On pourrait voir dans cette affaire un simple conflit, sur le plan de la morale et de l’éthique, entre commerce, qui s’en dispense volontiers, et diplomatie, soumise généralement à un certain code. Mais dans le contexte de conflit larvé entre Pékin et Taïpeh, vendre ouvertement des armes à Taïwan apparaît un tantinet comme une provocation adressée à Pékin, non ? Étonnant pour un Président qui affirme détester la guerre ! Considérerait-il un conflit avec la Chine comme une « guerre juste » ? Ou est-il tout simplement partisan de l’adage : « Si vis pacem para bellum » ?

  • Vietnam : la mondialisation contre la géographie - Asialyst

    Le Vietnam et Singapour sont les seuls pays de l’ASEAN à avoir adhéré au Partenariat transpacifique, le fameux TPP lancé par les Américains, et à avoir signé un traité de libre-échange avec l’Union européenne. La position de Singapour n’étonne pas, celle du Vietnam surprend. Qu’est ce qui la motive ?
    Le diktat de la géographie

    Considérant uniquement les grands pays, on exclut la Mongolie ou la Corée du Nord.
    Qu’est-ce que le Vietnam et le Mexique ont en commun ? Un point qu’ils ne partagent avec aucun autre grand pays. La réponse ne relève ni de la culture, ni de l’histoire, mais de la géographie économique. Tous deux sont voisins d’une très grande puissance
    . Certes, la traversée de la frontière entre Hékou et Lao Cai ou Youyi Guan et Huu Nghi Quan n’est pas une expérience aussi vertigineuse qu’entre San Diego et Tijuana : en entrant au Mexique depuis les lointains faubourgs de cette ville californienne sillonnée de SUV, on « chute » de plusieurs milliers de dollars de revenu par habitant. On n’a pas la même impression lorsqu’on traverse le Fleuve Roue à Lao Cai. Par contre, alors que le PIB mexicain est le dixième du PIB américain, le PIB vietnamien est le cinquantième du PIB chinois.
    A l’heure d’Internet et de la mondialisation, la proximité demeure un déterminant majeur de la géographie du commerce mondial. L’Allemagne est le principal partenaire de la France, les Etats-Unis du Canada ou du Mexique, le Japon de la Corée du Sud. A ce propos, les économètres montrent que l’intensité des échanges bilatéraux obéit à une loi analogue à celle de Newton selon laquelle l’attraction entre deux corps est proportionnelle au produit de leurs masses et inversement proportionnelle au carré de leur distance. Qu’en est-il dans le cas du Mexique et du Vietnam ?
    Alors que l’écart entre les PIB chinois et vietnamien est plus élevé, le poids des échanges avec la Chine pour le Vietnam (50 % du PIB) est déjà supérieur à celui du commerce avec les Etats-Unis pour le Mexique (40 %). Cela suggère que la place de la Chine dans le PIB vietnamien pourrait augmenter, une conclusion contre laquelle les Vietnamiens s’insurgent. Pour des raisons économiques, leur déficit avec leur grand voisin du Nord est abyssal ; pour des raisons politiques, ils n’apprécient pas plus les Chinois que les Mexicains les « Gringos ». Leur histoire a été marquée par plusieurs guerres dont la dernière en 1979, et ils sont confrontés aux ambitions chinoises dans les mers du Sud.
    Pour échapper au diktat de la géographie, les Vietnamiens mobilisent la mondialisation. En Octobre 2015 avec onze autres pays, ils ont signé le TPP qui devra encore franchir de nombreux obstacles pour être mis en oeuvre. Le 4 décembre, ils ont signé un traité de libre-échange avec l’UE sur lequel plane moins d’incertitude.

    #Vietnam #TPP #Etats-Unis #Chine

  • Les #Etats-Unis s’apprêtent à vendre deux frégates à Taiwan

    L’administration américaine devrait autoriser dès cette semaine la vente à Taiwan de deux frégates équipées de missiles guidés en dépit de l’opposition chinoise à cet accord, indiquent des sources au sein du Congrès, lundi 14 décembre.

    #International #Fil_d'actualités #Chine #Taïwan

  • Les USA s’apprêtent à vendre deux frégates à Taiwan

    ’administration américaine devrait autoriser dès cette semaine la vente à Taiwan de deux frégates équipées de missiles guidés en dépit de l’opposition chinoise à cet accord, indiquent des sources au sein du Congrès, lundi 14 décembre.

    #International #Fil_d'actualités #Chine #Etats-Unis #Taïwan

  • Début du procès de l’influent dissident Pu Zhiqiang en #Chine

    Pu, 50 ans, est détenu depuis mai 2014 après avoir participé à une réunion privée pour commémorer la répression menée par le pouvoir chinois contre les étudiants de la place Tiananmen en 1989. Son procès s’ouvre lundi 14 décembre.

    #International #Fil_d'actualités #Droits_de_l'homme #Justice #Xinjiang

  • La #Chine et la COP21 (3). Après des années d’apathie, le pouvoir se réveille

    Pékin est ces jours-ci paralysée par une alerte rouge à la #pollution. Face à l’aggravation de la crise environnementale, le gouvernement chinois multiplie les engagements, notamment en matière de pollution de l’eau et de l’air. Mais les lois nationales sont en général peu ou pas appliquées au niveau local.

    #International #Asie #Climat #Cop_21 #Ecologie #environnement

  • #pollution : #Pékin en « alerte rouge »

    La circulation alternée a été décrétée, les écoles maternelles, primaires et secondaires sont priées de suspendre les cours, les opérations extérieures des chantiers de construction sont interdites et certaines usines doivent de limiter ou de stopper leur production.

    #International #Fil_d'actualités #Asie #Chine

  • IMF Move on Yuan Shows That Excluding China Is a Losing Bet

    On Monday, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) voted to add China’s currency, the yuan or renminbi, to a very short list of elite global reserve currencies. Next fall, the yuan will officially be added to the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights (SDR) basket of currencies, which presently includes just the dollar, euro, yen and pound sterling. In part, the decision reflects the undeniable reality of China’s economic rise. However, the decision is also a pragmatic, perhaps even savvy, move by the IMF and the United States to further incorporate China into an international financial order that largely reflects Western economic ideas and interests.

    The SDR is sometimes referred to as a “synthetic currency.” Its value changes daily and is based on a weighted combination of the four—soon to be five—currencies that make up the basket. From a practical standpoint, SDRs do not really matter very much. Their most prominent role is as a unit of account for the IMF. For example, the IMF officially reports its own assets and liabilities in SDR terms.

    Despite that, inclusion in the SDR basket has symbolic value. It can be thought of as the IMF’s official endorsement of the yuan as a global investment and trade settlement currency. Central bankers as well as asset managers of private investment funds take the IMF’s opinion on such matters seriously. One major global bank predicts that the currency’s new status will generate $1 trillion in new investments in China over the next year. That could increase to $3 trillion over five years.

    Yet, by some accounts, the yuan is not yet deserving of its new lofty status. One key requirement for inclusion in the SDR basket is what the IMF calls the freely usable standard. As recently as this spring, U.S. Treasury Secretary Jack Lew publicly stated that the yuan did not yet belong in the basket because “further liberalization and reform” was necessary to meet that IMF standard. Implicitly, Lew was pointing to two complaints the U.S. regularly makes about China’s currency policy. First, Beijing still tightly manages the yuan’s exchange rate, rather than allowing the market to drive its value. Second, the yuan is not a so-called fully convertible currency, as Beijing limits how much cash can move both in and out of its domestic financial markets.
    Why did the U.S. change its position from opposing the yuan’s inclusion in the spring to supporting it by the fall?
    However, earlier this year, the IMF issued a report that noted that “freely useable” simply means a currency is widely used to make payments for international transactions and widely traded in foreign exchange markets. On these standards, the yuan scores relatively well.

    In recent years, the yuan has surged to become the second most popular currency in international trade financing deals and, overall, is now the fourth most widely used currency in international payments of all types. Nevertheless, the yuan still does not rank as a top five currency in global debt markets, currency trading or foreign exchange reserves.

    In short, the yuan had a solid economic case for IMF inclusion—but not an overwhelmingly strong one. So, why did the U.S. change its position from opposing the yuan’s inclusion in the spring to supporting it by the fall? The answer comes down to politics. 

    Since at least 2009, China’s top central banker, Zhou Xiaochuan, has made getting his country’s currency in the SDR basket something of a personal crusade. Zhou is an economic reformer. In his tenure as governor of the People’s Bank of China (PBC), he has overseen a long list of policy changes that have opened China’s financial markets up to the world—albeit slowly and incrementally.

    Financial liberalization poses some risks for key interest groups in China, not least of which are major export-oriented industries. Despite these risks, Zhou was able to push forward, in part, by dangling the prestige of SDR membership in front of the country’s leadership. Had the IMF thumbed its nose at the yuan—as it did in 2010—Zhou’s reform strategy, as well as his leadership at the PBC, may have been questioned in Beijing. Rejection would have been a blow to the financial reform movement in China and may have brought about backsliding. That was an outcome that the U.S. and IMF leadership wanted to avoid.

    On the other hand, voting to include the yuan in the SDR basket hands a clear victory to Zhou and his vision of a more open Chinese financial system. It encourages continued incremental liberalization by demonstrating that the U.S.-dominated institution is willing to give China more power, so long as Beijing makes an effort to meet the IMF’s standards. This point bears repeating: Demonstrating that the IMF can serve China’s interests as well as America’s is vital for both the IMF itself and the international financial order that it presides over.

    #Chine, #yuan, #FMI

  • Fièvre des canaux en Amérique centrale, par François Musseau (Le Monde diplomatique, septembre 2014)

    -"Sur l’échiquier géostratégique, le Panamá s’attend à en tirer avantage. Outre son canal, il dispose de six ports, d’un chemin de fer, d’une voie rapide et, avec Colón, de la plus vaste zone de libre-échange du monde après Hongkong. « Plus qu’un couloir, ce chenal est en passe de devenir un grand carrefour logistique », confirme M. Alberto Alemán, ex-directeur du canal, aujourd’hui à la tête de Panamá Pacífico, un complexe de 1 400 hectares où sont installées une centaine de multinationales, à l’est de la capitale. « Il y a ici le seul port avec des terminaux dans les deux océans. C’est un atout crucial. »

    Mais la concurrence s’aiguise, et d’autres projets de raccourci maritime ont vu le jour, avec des degrés d’avancement divers. Le plus simple se situe au nord : le passage du Nord-Ouest, qui relie Pacifique et Atlantique via l’archipel arctique canadien. Avec le réchauffement climatique, cette route glacée pourrait offrir, à terme, un nouvel itinéraire aux navires." ;

    –" le Salvador, le Honduras et le Costa Rica ont évoqué en 2011 la création de voies de passage sur leurs territoires. Début 2012, le Guatemala a créé un organisme, le Couloir interocéanique du Guatemala (CIG), qui prévoit de relier deux ports — à construire — pour un coût de 7,5 milliards de dollars. Il ne s’agit pas là de percement, mais de « canaux secs » acheminant les marchandises d’un porte-conteneurs à un autre par voie ferrée ou routière.

    Depuis la fin des années 2000, un même projet d’un coût similaire existe en Colombie, pays baigné par les deux océans. « En réalité, plus que des canaux secs, il s’agit de réseaux de transports densifiés, commente l’analyste péruvien Luis Esteban Manrique sur le site Infolatam. Avec le désavantage, pour les compagnies maritimes, qu’elles paient cher le chargement et le déchargement des marchandises. » Selon la Banque interaméricaine de développement (BID), une cargaison de 10 000 conteneurs équivaut à 18 trains, ou 5 800 camions. En d’autres termes, il faudrait plusieurs kilomètres de trains pour décharger un seul porte-conteneurs...

    De tous les projets de corridor interocéanique, celui du Nicaragua est de loin le plus ambitieux — et le plus controversé. Car les autorités ont bel et bien l’intention de percer un canal sur près de 300 kilomètres." ;

    –"Alors que le canal panaméen ne peut accueillir les porte-conteneurs de plus de 110 000 tonnes, celui-là permettrait le passage de colosses de métal de 250 000 tonnes mesurant jusqu’à 450 mètres de long. Son tracé, approuvé en juillet dernier, avait déjà été imaginé par les conquistadors espagnols." ;

    –"la concession accordée par Managua à HKND illustre les ambitions stratégiques de Pékin. Selon le site nicaraguayen El Confidencial, derrière M. Wang se cache l’Etat chinois lui-même. Tout comme le projet de canal sec en Colombie, ceux du Guatemala et du Salvador sont financés par la .

    « Il existe un “rêve chinois”, confie un interlocuteur qui souhaite conserver l’anonymat. Celui de contrôler un couloir stratégique par lequel passerait le gros des exportations du pays vers les Amériques. »" ;

    –"Bien qu’ils aient rétrocédé le chenal panaméen, les Etats-Unis dominent son trafic, et les navires battant pavillon nord-américain y bénéficient d’une priorité de passage, ce qui peut retarder sensiblement les autres porte-conteneurs. « Stratégiquement, c’est toujours leur canal, nous assure Miguel Antonio Bernal, professeur de droit constitutionnel à l’université de Panamá. C’est là qu’ils font passer leurs sous-marins ; là qu’ils interviendront militairement dès que leurs intérêts seront contrariés. Même nos autorités l’ont admis. »"

    Routes maritimes des Amériques, par Cécile Marin (Le Monde diplomatique, septembre 2014)

    La Bolivie les yeux vers les flots, par Cédric Gouverneur (Le Monde diplomatique, septembre 2015)

    #Commerce_international #Routes_maritimes #Transports #Panama_canal #Chine #Etats-Unis #Amérique_Centrale #Amérique_Latine #Amérique_du_Sud

    Qui a tué Berta Cáceres ?, par Cécile Raimbeau (Le Monde diplomatique, octobre 2016)
    #Libéralisme #Energie #Privatisations

    "l’oligarchie est la principale bénéficiaire de cet emballement pour la « houille blanche » (l’énergie hydroélectrique), encouragé par les prêts de banques internationales — Banque mondiale, Banque interaméricaine de développement (BID) et Banque centre-américaine d’intégration économique (BCIE) — et les filiales des agences de coopération européennes qui se consacrent au soutien du secteur privé des pays du Sud : la française Proparco (filiale de l’Agence française de développement), l’allemande DEG, la néerlandaise FMO… Ces organismes d’économie mixte n’hésitent pas à s’allier plus ou moins discrètement avec des fonds de pension et des multinationales, à travers des montages complexes."

  • Fewer mainland Chinese settle in Hong Kong, leading to cut in population growth projection | South China Morning Post

    Acting Commissioner for Census and Statistics Stephen Leung Kwan-chi told lawmakers yesterday that the lower take-up rate since 2013 could weaken further, with mainlanders expected to use only 100 out of the 150 daily permits available.

    “People coming to Hong Kong under the scheme remain an important driver of population growth,” said Leung.

    Hong Kong has one of the world’s lowest birth rates at 8.6 per 1,000 people last year, down from 13.5 in 2011, according to government statistics. The inflow of one-way permit holders is therefore crucial in adding to the overall population.

    Under the scheme, launched in 1997 largely to allow family reunion, up to 150 permits are available for mainland applicants every day. In the past, many were mainland mothers seeking to join their children and husbands in Hong Kong.

    According to official figures, the use of the daily quota – which dipped in 2007 and 2008 – reached a peak in 2012, with an average of 149 mainlanders admitted into the city every day. However, that number has been slipping since then, with 123 people in 2013 and 111 last year.

    However, a paper released to lawmakers said: “The revised assumption should in no way be construed as any intention to change the [one-way permit] scheme”, adding the mainland authorities had no plan to revise the existing quota. 

    “Given the prevalence of cross-boundary marriages which have made up almost 40 per cent of locally registered marriages, there is a continued need for the scheme to enable separated spouses and their children born on the mainland to come to Hong Kong for family reunion,” said the paper.

    A leading social policy academic and a social worker said better living standards on the mainland had led to fewer applications for one-way permits, while recent anti-mainland sentiment in the city might also have had an impact.

    #Hongkong #Chine #migrations