• Boeing Built Deadly Assumptions Into 737 Max, Blind to a Late Design Change - The New York Times

    A year before the plane was finished, Boeing made the system more aggressive and riskier. While the original version relied on data from at least two types of sensors, the ultimate used just one, leaving the system without a critical safeguard. In both doomed flights, pilots struggled as a single damaged sensor sent the planes into irrecoverable nose-dives within minutes, killing 346 people and prompting regulators around the world to ground the Max.

    But many people involved in building, testing and approving the system, known as MCAS, said they hadn’t fully understood the changes. Current and former employees at Boeing and the Federal Aviation Administration who spoke with The New York Times said they had assumed the system relied on more sensors and would rarely, if ever, activate. Based on those misguided assumptions, many made critical decisions, affecting design, certification and training.

    Au fond, ne s’agit-il pas de l’application à des outils « physiques » des préceptes et méthodes de l’industrie « immatérielle » ? Une idéologie de l’erreur/bug impossible, de la rapidité de mise sur le marché, de l’absence de réelle documentation, notamment d’une documentation qui ne dit pas « comment ça marche », mais « comment c’est conçu et pourquoi ».

    While prosecutors and lawmakers try to piece together what went wrong, the current and former employees point to the single, fateful decision to change the system, which led to a series of design mistakes and regulatory oversights. As Boeing rushed to get the plane done, many of the employees say, they didn’t recognize the importance of the decision. They described a compartmentalized approach, each of them focusing on a small part of the plane. The process left them without a complete view of a critical and ultimately dangerous system.

    The company also played down the scope of the system to regulators. Boeing never disclosed the revamp of MCAS to Federal Aviation Administration officials involved in determining pilot training needs, according to three agency officials. When Boeing asked to remove the description of the system from the pilot’s manual, the F.A.A. agreed. As a result, most Max pilots did not know about the software until after the first crash, in October.

    L’informatique magique dans toute sa splendeur

    But the plane wasn’t flying smoothly, partly because of the Max’s bigger engines. To fix the issue, Boeing decided to use a piece of software. The system was meant to work in the background, so pilots effectively wouldn’t know it was there.

    That probability may have underestimated the risk of so-called external events that have damaged sensors in the past, such as collisions with birds, bumps from ramp stairs or mechanics’ stepping on them. While part of the assessment considers such incidents, they are not included in the probability. Investigators suspect the angle-of-attack sensor was hit on the doomed Ethiopian Airlines flight in March.

    Bird strikes on angle-of-attack sensors are relatively common.

    A Times review of two F.A.A. databases found hundreds of reports of bent, cracked, sheared-off, poorly installed or otherwise malfunctioning angle-of-attack sensors on commercial aircraft over three decades.

    #Boeing #Sécurité #Ingénierie #Capitalisme_de_catastrophe

    https://seenthis.net/messages/784811 via Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier

  • L’étau des systèmes invisibles

    La démocratie telle que nous la concevons aujourd’hui, telle qu’elle est expliquée dans les émissions politiques, par les journalistes, par les politiciens, par toute une ribambelle de personnalité médiatique, est une sorte de mantra sur laquelle tout le monde semble d’accord au point où remettre en question ce dogme serait comme remettre en question la rotondité de la Terre. Pourtant, […]

    #Articles #Conditionnement_/_Manipulation #Gouvernance #Ingénierie_sociale #Politique #Société #Travail #aristocratie_élective #néolibéralisme #ploutocratie_managériale

  • Le désenchantement du logiciel

    Ceci n’est pas de l’#ingénierie. C’est de la programmation de paresseux. L’ingénierie est synonyme de performance, de structure et implique de comprendre les limites profondes de ce qu’on construit. Combiner des programmes mal écrits, avec des programmes encore plus mal rédigés va directement à l’encontre de ça. Pour progresser, nous devons comprendre ce que nous faisons et pourquoi.

    https://seenthis.net/messages/726364 via tetue

  • Comment manipuler l’opinion en démocratie.

    Comment manipuler l’opinion en démocratie ? Si cette question peut en faire sourire certains ou être considérée par d’autres comme probablement « complotiste » , c’est pourtant elle qui a motivé le publicitaire américain #edward_bernays durant toute sa vie. Illustre inconnu pour le grand public, il a pourtant eu une influence non négligeable sur notre société. La portée de […]

    #Articles #Conditionnement_/_Manipulation #Histoire #Ingénierie_sociale #Marketing/Publicité #Médias #Psychologie #Sociologie #fabrique_du_conssentement #propaganda #relation_publique

  • Facebook’s war on free will | Technology | The Guardian

    All the values that Silicon Valley professes are the values of the 60s. The big tech companies present themselves as platforms for personal liberation. Everyone has the right to speak their mind on social media, to fulfil their intellectual and democratic potential, to express their individuality. Where television had been a passive medium that rendered citizens inert, Facebook is participatory and empowering. It allows users to read widely, think for themselves and form their own opinions.

    We can’t entirely dismiss this rhetoric. There are parts of the world, even in the US, where Facebook emboldens citizens and enables them to organise themselves in opposition to power. But we shouldn’t accept Facebook’s self-conception as sincere, either. Facebook is a carefully managed top-down system, not a robust public square. It mimics some of the patterns of conversation, but that’s a surface trait.
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    In reality, Facebook is a tangle of rules and procedures for sorting information, rules devised by the corporation for the ultimate benefit of the corporation. Facebook is always surveilling users, always auditing them, using them as lab rats in its behavioural experiments. While it creates the impression that it offers choice, in truth Facebook paternalistically nudges users in the direction it deems best for them, which also happens to be the direction that gets them thoroughly addicted. It’s a phoniness that is most obvious in the compressed, historic career of Facebook’s mastermind.

    Though Facebook will occasionally talk about the transparency of governments and corporations, what it really wants to advance is the transparency of individuals – or what it has called, at various moments, “radical transparency” or “ultimate transparency”. The theory holds that the sunshine of sharing our intimate details will disinfect the moral mess of our lives. With the looming threat that our embarrassing information will be broadcast, we’ll behave better. And perhaps the ubiquity of incriminating photos and damning revelations will prod us to become more tolerant of one another’s sins. “The days of you having a different image for your work friends or co-workers and for the other people you know are probably coming to an end pretty quickly,” Zuckerberg has said. “Having two identities for yourself is an example of a lack of integrity.”

    There’s another way to describe this historical progression. Automation has come in waves. During the industrial revolution, machinery replaced manual workers. At first, machines required human operators. Over time, machines came to function with hardly any human intervention. For centuries, engineers automated physical labour; our new engineering elite has automated thought. They have perfected technologies that take over intellectual processes, that render the brain redundant. Or, as the former Google and Yahoo executive Marissa Mayer once argued, “You have to make words less human and more a piece of the machine.” Indeed, we have begun to outsource our intellectual work to companies that suggest what we should learn, the topics we should consider, and the items we ought to buy. These companies can justify their incursions into our lives with the very arguments that Saint-Simon and Comte articulated: they are supplying us with efficiency; they are imposing order on human life.

    Algorithms can be gorgeous expressions of logical thinking, not to mention a source of ease and wonder. They can track down copies of obscure 19th-century tomes in a few milliseconds; they put us in touch with long-lost elementary school friends; they enable retailers to deliver packages to our doors in a flash. Very soon, they will guide self-driving cars and pinpoint cancers growing in our innards. But to do all these things, algorithms are constantly taking our measure. They make decisions about us and on our behalf. The problem is that when we outsource thinking to machines, we are really outsourcing thinking to the organisations that run the machines.

    Facebook would never put it this way, but algorithms are meant to erode free will, to relieve humans of the burden of choosing, to nudge them in the right direction. Algorithms fuel a sense of omnipotence, the condescending belief that our behaviour can be altered, without our even being aware of the hand guiding us, in a superior direction. That’s always been a danger of the engineering mindset, as it moves beyond its roots in building inanimate stuff and begins to design a more perfect social world. We are the screws and rivets in the grand design.

    #Facebook #Algorithme #Société_calcul #Ingénierie

    https://seenthis.net/messages/630926 via Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier

  • Oui au libre marché ! Libérons les économies (le film)

    (Illustration de Pawel Kuczynski) Oui au libre marché ! Libérons les économies (le film) Alors que nous sommes en période électorale, les candidats usent de promesses encore et toujours. Ils nous parlent (comme depuis 40 ans) de degrés de libéralisation des marchés, car selon eux, c’est une nécessité à la juste confiance, à l’emploi, en bref un coup de pouce à […]

    #Alternatives #Documentaires_/_reportages #Economie #Gouvernance #Ingénierie_sociale #Internet #Logiciel_libre #monnaie #Politique #Société #Technologie #Vidéos

  • Oui au libre marché ! Libérons les économies (le film)

    (Illustration de Pawel Kuczynski) Oui au libre marché ! Libérons les économies (le film) Alors que nous sommes en période électorale, les candidats usent de promesses encore et toujours. Ils nous parlent (comme depuis 40 ans) de degrés de libéralisation des marchés, car selon eux, c’est une nécessité à la juste confiance, à l’emploi, en bref un coup de pouce à […]

    #Alternatives #Documentaires_/_reportages #Economie #Gouvernance #Ingénierie_sociale #Internet #Logiciel_libre #monnaie #Politique #Société #Technologie #Vidéos

  • Oui au libre marché ! Libérons les économies (le film)

    Oui au libre marché ! Libérons les économies (le film) Alors que nous sommes en période électorale, les candidats usent de promesses encore et toujours. Ils nous parlent (comme depuis 40 ans) de degrés de libéralisation des marchés, car selon eux, c’est une nécessité à la juste confiance, à l’emploi, en bref un coup de pouce à la croissance qui ferait […]

    #Alternatives #Documentaires_/_reportages #Economie #Gouvernance #Ingénierie_sociale #Internet #Logiciel_libre #monnaie #Politique #Société #Technologie #Vidéos