• Quantifying Biases in Online Information Exposure | Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research, Indiana University
    https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.06958
    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1807.06958.pdf

    Our consumption of online #information is mediated by filtering, ranking, and recommendation algorithms that introduce unintentional biases as they attempt to deliver relevant and engaging content. It has been suggested that our reliance on online technologies such as search engines and social media may limit exposure to diverse points of view and make us vulnerable to manipulation by disinformation. In this paper, we mine a massive dataset of Web traffic to quantify two kinds of bias: (i) homogeneity bias, which is the tendency to consume content from a narrow set of information sources, and (ii) popularity bias, which is the selective exposure to content from top sites. Our analysis reveals different bias levels across several widely used Web platforms. Search exposes users to a diverse set of sources, while social media traffic tends to exhibit high popularity and homogeneity #bias. When we focus our analysis on traffic to news sites, we find higher levels of popularity bias, with smaller differences across applications. Overall, our results quantify the extent to which our choices of online systems confine us inside “social bubbles.”

    #personnalisation #médias_sociaux #algorithme via @pomeranian99

    https://seenthis.net/messages/715004 via tbn


  • Étude : les français et leur consommation de l’information en 2018
    https://www.blogdumoderateur.com/etude-consommation-information-france-2018
    https://ressources.blogdumoderateur.com/2018/06/Etude-Reuters-1-1.png

    Reuters vient de publier les résultats de son étude sur la consommation de l’#information dans le monde en 2018. Le rapport, très fourni, est basé sur l’étude de plus de 74 000 personnes vivant dans 37 pays différents. Au niveau des enseignements pour la France, on y apprend entre autres que : la télévision reste la source privilégiée pour s’informer, que les français sont assez sceptiques sur la véracité des informations, et que Facebook reste le réseau social le plus utilisé pour diffuser des news.

    En ce qui concerne les sources d’information, on constate que la télévision n’a plus le même statut qu’il y a 6 ans. En 2013, les français étaient 84% à s’informer via la télé, il ne sont désormais plus que 71%. Le recours à Internet reste constant avec 68%. On constate cependant une augmentation notable de l’usage des réseaux sociaux pour s’informer, passant de 18% en 2013 à 36% en 2018. Le print, quant à lui, continue de chuter lourdement. Il y a 6 ans, 46% des français s’informaient par ce biais, ils ne sont plus que 20% actuellement.

    (…) Au niveau des appareils utilisés, on constate que l’ordinateur reste l’outil privilégié (56%), talonné par le smartphone dont l’usage a plus que doublé en 6 ans (51% en 2018 contre 24% en 2013). La tablette progresse également passant de 11% en 2013 à 20% en 2018.

    Autre donnée intéressante, on constate que les français ne sont pas du tout prêts à payer pour avoir accès à l’information. Ils sont en effet seulement 11% à payer pour lire des contenus en ligne, ce qui en fait le 20ème pays sur les 37 analysés.

    (…) D’après l’étude, les français sont assez méfiants par rapport aux informations qu’ils obtiennent et à leur véracité. Ils sont en effet 35% en moyenne à faire confiance aux médias en général, un faible taux par rapport à leurs voisins européens qui en fait le 29ème pays sur les 37 sondés. Les plateformes utilisées influent également sur le taux de confiance. Toujours selon le rapport, seuls 19% des français ont confiance en ce qu’ils lisent sur les réseaux sociaux et 26% en ce qu’ils lisent sur les moteurs de recherche.

    #médias #médias_sociaux via @opironet

    https://seenthis.net/messages/703638 via tbn


  • #Facebook : les posts organiques bientôt exclus du fil d’actualité ?
    https://www.blogdumoderateur.com/facebook-posts-organiques-fil-explorer

    Actuellement, seuls quelques pays sont concernés : la Slovaquie, le Sri Lanka, la Serbie, la Bolivie, le Guatemala, le Cambodge et a priori la Serbie et l’Indonésie, selon les témoignages de community managers qui gèrent des pages dans ces pays. Filip Struhárik, journaliste chez Denník N (un média slovaque), a effectué une analyse des interactions reçues par 60 médias slovaques sur Facebook, via l’outil Crowdtangle. Depuis la mise à jour Facebook, l’engagement a été divisé par quatre !

    https://medium.com/@filip_struharik/biggest-drop-in-organic-reach-weve-ever-seen-b2239323413

    https://ressources.blogdumoderateur.com/2017/10/interactions-facebook-noooooooooooo.png

    Voir « vassalisation ».

    #médias_sociaux #information

    https://seenthis.net/messages/639561 via tbn


  • Congress may try to regulate political ads on Facebook (FB) like those on broadcast television — Quartz
    https://qz.com/1105987/congress-may-try-to-regulate-political-ads-in-the-internet-like-those-on-broadca

    The Honest Ads Act would require social media and internet companies that have more than 50 million monthly users to make public detailed information about any political advertiser who spends over $500 on their platforms. It would require these companies to:

    · Make public digital copies of any advertisement these groups purchase, including the dates and times published.

    · Include a description of the audience and political ad target, and the number of times it was viewed.

    · Disclose contact information for the ads’ purchaser, and how much they paid for the ad.

    · Make “reasonable efforts” to ensure that any political ads or messaging isn’t purchased by a foreign national, directly or indirectly.

    Political advertising on the internet is almost entirely unregulated in the US, despite strict rules that date back decades requiring broadcast television stations to disclose who is paying for political ads. When a commissioner from the Federal Election Commission suggested in 2014 that the same rules apply to political advertising on the internet, she was harassed online and off.

    With the bill, the senators aren’t attempting to solve all problems related to propaganda on the internet, just the biggest one, said McGehee. The bill is “carefully crafted,” she said.

    There’s no guarantee that the bill will pass, despite concern in Washington about Russia’s influence. Tech companies such as Facebook have spent tens of millions of dollars in recent years to lobby Congress, the Trump White House has been vehemently anti-regulation, and has called Russia’s interference in the election “fake.”

    (à suivre)
    #publicité #médias_sociaux #infoguerre

    https://seenthis.net/messages/639306 via tbn


  • Du danger de (trop) s’indigner en ligne
    http://abonnes.lemonde.fr/big-browser/article/2017/10/20/du-danger-de-trop-s-indigner-en-ligne_5203946_4832693.html
    http://s1.lemde.fr/image/2017/10/20/644x322/5203945_3_1523_2015-07-29-b7fbc69-32136-1estyoz_3df103e85fb025df8fc2b60590c15eeb.jpg

    L’indignation de leurs utilisateurs est un des carburants qui font tourner Twitter ou Facebook. Elle est recherchée et encouragée par ces multinationales car elle est au cœur même du fonctionnement des plates-formes qu’elles ont créées. Le contenu à fort quotient émotionnel génère le plus de likes, de commentaires, de partages – une des émotions qui rapportent le plus est la colère. Pour que ces services, que nous utilisons gratuitement, soient rentables, ces entreprises ont besoin de toujours plus de trafic, donc de revenus publicitaires. Elles ont intérêt à ce qu’on y reste le plus longtemps possible.

    C’est une réalité qu’on a trop tendance à oublier lorsqu’on traite de polémiques nées sur les réseaux sociaux. Molly Crockett, professeure adjointe de psychologie à l’université Yale (Connecticut), le rappelle justement dans « Indignation morale à l’ère digitale », une étude qui s’intéresse « à la façon dont la technologie peut transformer l’expression de l’indignation morale et ses conséquences sociales ».

    Le dernier mouvement qui est apparu, massif et organique, est incarné en France par le hashtag #balancetonporc avec lequel des milliers de femmes ont partagé sur Twitter leurs expériences d’agression ou de harcèlement sexuels. A moins d’une semaine d’existence, on ne peut pas encore dire s’il restera une explosion cathartique de victimes tentant de se libérer d’un poids trop longtemps enfoui, ou s’il aboutira à des avancées tangibles pour lutter contre le harcèlement et les violences envers les femmes.

    Il n’est pas surprenant que cette prise de parole collective ait pu naître et essaimer sur les réseaux, mais comme le dit le chercheur Olivier Ertzscheid sur Rue89, « ce serait une catastrophe que ces débats commencent et terminent sur Twitter ou sur Facebook. Comme ce serait une catastrophe de croire que ces plates-formes protégeront ». Si ces espaces deviennent des agoras numériques où des problèmes de société émergent et débordent jusque dans la « vie réelle », c’est qu’ils remplissent un vide laissé par les pouvoir publics et les médias.

    Pour Twitter et Facebook, #balancetonporc n’est qu’un hashtag parmi d’autres, intéressant uniquement dans la mesure où il rapporte du trafic. Olivier Ertzscheid rappelle, lui aussi, une vérité qu’on oublie trop souvent :

    « Il n’y a pour ces plates-formes ni victimes ni bourreaux, ni opprimés ni oppresseurs, seulement des usagers et des clients. »

    #Médias_sociaux #Indignation #Activisme #Olivier_Ertzscheid

    https://seenthis.net/messages/638830 via Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier


  • Les ingénieurs de Facebook et Google ont des états d’âme
    https://usbeketrica.com/article/temoignages-ingenieurs-facebook-google-economie-attention-addiction-res

    L’ex-stratège de Google a construit le système qui permet à l’entreprise de mesurer l’impact des publicités vendues dans le monde. Le jeune homme de 35 ans confie au Guardian que l’industrie de la tech est pour lui « la plus importante, la plus standardisée, et la plus centralisée des formes de contrôle de l’#attention de l’histoire de l’humanité ».

    #dissonance_cognitive #médias_sociaux

    https://seenthis.net/messages/638089 via tbn


  • Undercover With the Alt-Right - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/19/opinion/alt-right-white-supremacy-undercover.html
    https://static01.nyt.com/images/2017/09/19/opinion/still1/still1-facebookJumbo.jpg

    Last September, Patrik Hermansson, a 25-year-old graduate student from Sweden, went undercover in the world of the extreme right. Posing as a student writing a thesis about the suppression of right-wing speech, he traveled from London to New York to Charlottesville, Va. — and into the heart of a dangerous movement that is experiencing a profound rejuvenation.

    Mr. Hermansson, who was sent undercover by the British anti-racist watchdog group Hope Not Hate, spent months insinuating himself into the alt-right, using his Swedish nationality (many neo-Nazis are obsessed with Sweden because of its “Nordic” heritage) as a way in. It wasn’t always easy. “You want to punch them in the face,” he told me of the people he met undercover. “You want to scream and do whatever — leave. But you can’t do any of those things. You have to sit and smile.”

    What he learned while undercover is one part of a shocking, comprehensive new report from Hope Not Hate that sheds light on the strange landscape of the alt-right, the much discussed, little understood and largely anonymous far-right movement that exists mostly online and that has come to national attention in part because of its support for Donald Trump.

    The extreme alt-right are benefiting immensely from the energy being produced by a more moderate — but still far-right — faction known as the “alt-light.”

    The alt-light promotes a slightly softer set of messages. Its figures — such as Milo Yiannopoulos, Paul Joseph Watson and Mike Cernovich — generally frame their work as part of an effort to defend “the West” or “Western culture” against supposed left-liberal dominance, rather than making explicitly racist appeals. Many of them, in fact, have renounced explicit racism and anti-Semitism, though they will creep up to the line of explicitly racist speech, especially when Islam and immigration are concerned.

    According to researchers, the key to hooking new recruits into any movement, and to getting them increasingly involved over time, is to simply give them activities to participate in. This often precedes any deep ideological commitment on the recruits’ part and, especially early on, is more about offering them a sense of meaning and community than anything else.

    Intentionally or not, the far right has deftly applied these insights to the online world. Viewed through the filters of alt-light outlets like Breitbart and Prison Planet, or through Twitter feeds like Mr. Watson’s, the world is a horror show of crimes by migrants, leftist censorship and attacks on common sense. And the best, easiest way to fight back is through social media.

    The newly initiated are offered many opportunities to participate directly. A teenager in a suburban basement can join a coordinated global effort to spread misinformation about Emmanuel Macron, France’s centrist president, in the hopes of helping far-right leader Marine Le Pen. Anyone who wants to do so can help spread the word about supposed mainstream media censorship of the Muslim “crime wave” the far right says is ravaging Europe.

    These efforts — a click, a retweet, a YouTube comment — come to feel like important parts of an epochal struggle. The far right, once hemmed in by its own parochialism, has manufactured a worldwide online battlefield anyone with internet access can step into.

    #Alt_right #Extrême_droite #Médias_sociaux #Post_truth

    https://seenthis.net/messages/631067 via Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier


  • The Platform Press : How Silicon Valley reengineered #journalism - Columbia Journalism Review via @opironet
    https://www.cjr.org/tow_center_reports/platform-press-how-silicon-valley-reengineered-journalism.php

    Avec une chronologie bien dense à la fin.

    2000

    October 23: Google AdWords launches.

    2002

    October 4—21: Harvard study finds 113 white nationalist, Nazi, anti-Semitic, and radical Islamic sites, and at least one fundamentalist Christian site, were removed from French and German Google listings.

    2004

    February 2: Facebook launches as a Harvard-only social network.

    2006

    January 23: Google News formally launches; had been in beta since September 2002.
    January 25: Google launches Google.cn, adhering to China’s censorship policies until March 2010.
    July 15: Twttr (later renamed Twitter) is released. “Tweets” can only be 140 characters.
    September 5: Facebook News Feed launches and displays activity from a user’s network.
    September 10: Google delists Inquisition21, a website seeking to challenge potentially incorrect child pornography convictions in the UK. Google implies the delisting is because Inquisition21 tried to manipulate search results.

    2007

    January 10: Facebook launches mobile site m.facebook.com.
    April 16: Google’s Terms of Service unveiled, including provisions granting Google “perpetual, irrevocable, worldwide, royalty-free, and non-exclusive license to reproduce, adapt, modify, translate, publish, publicly perform, publicly display and distribute any Content which [users] submit, post or display on or through, the Services.”

    2008

    October 7: Apple launches iOS App Store.
    October 22: Android OS Google Play store launches.
    December 30: Facebook removes a photo of a mother breastfeeding babies, leading to protests.

    2009

    February 4: Facebook’s Terms of Service altered to remove the automatic expiry of Facebook’s license to use individuals’ names, likenesses, and images if an account was deleted.
    February 24: WhatsApp, a mobile messaging app company, is founded, and the app is released in May of 2009.

    2010

    January 14: Links to Encyclopedia Dramatica’s “Aboriginal” article removed from Google after complaint; Google defended decision on grounds that the content represented a violation of Australia’s Racial Discrimination Act.
    March 22: Google announces it will no longer adhere to Chinese censorship policies by redirecting Chinese users to its Hong Kong domain.
    October 6: Instagram, a photo-based social network, is released.
    October 21: News Corporation axes “Project Alesia,” a potential competitor to Google News, over concerns about cost and readiness of proposed partners.

    2011

    September 26: Snapchat, a mobile app for disappearing messages, is released.
    October 12: iOS Apple Newsstand app to read a variety of publications is released.
    November 2: Twitter begins to “curate” results on its timeline.

    2012

    February 16: Facebook’s internal “Abuse Standards” leaked, including policy to filter out content containing images of maps of Kurdistan and of burning Turkish flags.
    March 1: Fundamental rewrite of Google’s Terms of Service, adding rights for Google to “use, host, [and] store” any content submitted by users.
    April 9: Facebook buys Instagram for $1 billion.
    May 31: Google launches a feature that informs Chinese users which keywords are censored. (The feature is removed in early December.)

    2013

    January 19: After backlash, Instagram scales back earlier announcement on changing Terms of Use to allow for selling user data.
    June 20: Announcement that video is coming to Instagram
    October 1: Canadian photographer Petra Collins’ Instagram account deleted because of a selfie which displayed visible pubic hair beneath her bikini bottom; challenged by Collins as it did not break Instagram’s terms.
    October 3: Snapchat Stories, a compilation of “snaps” a user’s friends see, launches.
    November 11: Update to Google’s Terms of Service, clarifying how profile name and photo might appear in Google products.
    November 20: Android OS Google Play Newsstand app to read a variety of publications launches.

    2014

    January 30: Facebook launches Paper, an effort at personalized news, and Trending.
    February 19: WhatsApp bought by Facebook for $19 billion.
    April 1: Algorithm introduced on Instagram to tailor the “Explore”/“Popular” tab to each user.
    April 14: Update to Google’s Terms of Service, including provision to automatically analyze content such as emails when content is sent, received, and stored.
    April 24: Launch of Facebook Newswire, powered by Storyful. While it was eventually folded, it allowed publishers to embed “newsworthy” content from Facebook into own material, use platform for newsgathering and storytelling.
    May 19: In Russia, Twitter blocks pro-Ukrainian accounts following threats to bar the service if it did not delete tweets violating Russian law.
    May 30: Google launches tool that enables Europeans to request “right to be forgotten” in response to ruling by European Court of Justice.
    June 13: Google ordered by Canadian court to remove search results that linked to websites of Datalink, which sold technology alleged to have been stolen from a competitor.
    June 17: Snapchat Our Story, a public Story aggregating many users’ activity around an event launches.
    June 23: Facebook News Feed algorithm altered to increase priority of video.
    July 15: Geofilters on Snapchat are released.
    July 25: Twitter blocks an account belonging to @boltai, a hacker collective that leaked internal Kremlin documents.
    August 25: Facebook News Feed algorithm altered to reduce priority of clickbait.
    October 22: German publishers concede defeat to Google in long-running dispute over attempt to charge license fees.
    December 18: Google removes links to articles that criticized Australian organization Universal Medicine, an alleged cult.

    2015

    January 12: Instagram deletes account of Australian photo and fashion agency due to a photograph with pubic hair outside bikini bottoms. (Account reactivated January 21.)
    January 20: Facebook News Feed algorithm altered to “show fewer hoaxes.”
    January 21: WhatsApp Web launches.
    January 27: Snapchat Discover launches. Selected publishers create a daily Discover channel, like a mini interactive magazine with an advertising revenue split arrangement where publishers can sell for 70 percent of revenue, or let Snapchat sell for 50 percent.
    March 3: Instagram carousel ads launch.
    March 9: Twitter acquires live streaming app Periscope.
    March 31: Twitter rolls out Curator, which allows publishers to search and display tweets based on hashtags, keywords, location, and other specific details.
    April 13: Snapchat gets rid of brand stories, also known as sponsored stories, after six months.
    April 21: Facebook tweaks News Feed to emphasize family and friends because people are worried about “missing important updates.”
    April 27: Snapchat hires Peter Hamby from CNN and announces plans to hire more journalists for the election.
    April 27: Google announces Digital News Initiative with eight European publishers.
    May 7: Facebook releases internal research on filter bubbles that finds “most people have friends who claim an opposing political ideology, and that the content in peoples’ News Feeds reflect those diverse views.”
    May 7: Snapchat will charge advertisers 2 cents per view for ten second ads in between Discover slides (up to four slots) and during videos. This plan is called Two Pennies. It was previously 15 cents.
    May 12: Facebook announces Instant Articles, faster loading articles on Facebook for iPhone,and original launch partners. Ads are embedded in article, and there is a 70/30 revenue share with publishers if Facebook sells the ad.
    June 8: Apple News app announced to replace the Newsstand app. Like Facebook Instant Articles, a 70/30 revenue share with publishers if Apple sells ads against their content.
    June 15: Facebook’s News Feed algorithm updated to prioritize time spent on a story above engagement.
    June 22: Google News Lab announced to support technological collaborations with journalists.
    June 23: Instagram changes Explore to allow users to follow real-time news more easily by sorting by location and recency.
    July 1: Automatic bans imposed on Facebook accounts using an offensive slang term for Russians. Similar Russian insults towards Ukrainians (such as ‘hohol’) were not deleted.
    July 27: Snapchat axes Yahoo! and Warner Music from Discover, replaces them with BuzzFeed and iHeartRadio.
    Late July: Snapchat’s ad team starts selling against Discover.
    August 5: Facebook Live video launches for public figures.
    August 27: Snapchat Discover expands from 12 to 15 partners. In the past, they cut old partners to add new ones so all 12 fit on one screen.
    September 9: Using the Facebook ad platform technology, Instagram’s advertising platform expands globally, allows for more targeting and ad format flexibility.
    September 22: Facebook allows publishers to create Instant Articles in their own content management systems.
    September 23: Facebook releases 360 video. Users can move their phones for a spherical view within a video.
    October 6: Twitter Moments, curated tweets around top stories, launches.
    October 7: Google announces Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP) project, which will allow publishers’ stories to load more quickly from search results.
    October 21: Twitter announces partnerships with firms such as Spredfast, Wayin, Dataminr, ScribbleLive, and Flowics at its developer conference.
    October 22: Google announces it has signed up over 120 news organizations for its Digital News Initiative, including the BBC, The Economist, and Der Spiegel.
    October 27: Twitter announces it will discontinue video-sharing app Vine.
    October 28: Snapchat Terms of Service updated: requests right to reproduce, modify, republish, and save users’ photos, specifically in relation to Live Stories.
    October 29: Instagram allows businesses to use Facebook’s Ads Manager and to run campaigns across Facebook and Instagram.
    October 31: Instagram conducts its first video curation for Halloween.
    November 10: Instagram partner program launches; a group of 40 adtech, content marketing, and community management companies that work to help businesses on Instagram.
    November 11: Facebook Notify, a real-time notification news app, is launched.
    November 13: Snapchat launches Official Stories, Stories from verified brands or influencers.
    November 23: Snapchat launches Story Explorer, which allows users to focus on a specific moment from a story, but from additional users and perspectives.
    November 30: Snapchat allows publishers to deep link back to Snapchat content from elsewhere, like other social platforms.
    December 3: Facebook releases Live video to the public.
    December 9: Facebook tweaks News Feed so it works with poor connections, like 2G. Facebook also allows publishers to sell Instant Article ad campaigns instead of having to make those ads part of their own site package, to have one ad for every 350 words of an Instant Article (up from one ad per 500 words), and to control link outs at bottom of Instant Articles.
    December 2: Snapchat makes a Story for live/breaking news during San Bernardino.
    December 9: Google announces AMP rollout timeline; pages will go live in February.
    December 15: German government strikes deal with outlets who agree to delete hate speech from their sites within 24 hours, in response to increasing racism online.

    2016

    January 5: Digiday reports that Snapchat, up to 23 Discover partners, is rumored to be building their own ad interface API, like Facebook, to target ads to users instead of publications.
    January 11: Instagram publishes its first live video curation for the Golden Globes.
    January 19: Nielsen expands Twitter TV Ratings to include Facebook conversations around TV shows, called Social Content Ratings.
    January 21: Facebook opens Audience Optimization to publishers to target specific readers.
    January 26: The Facebook Audience Network can be used by publishers to sell ads on their mobile sites.
    January 26: Apple plans to make subscription-only content available in the News app; publishers can only post free articles or excerpts that drive people to subscribe.
    January 27: Facebook reveals forthcoming “reactions” in the US, which had already been tested elsewhere in the world.
    January 28: Facebook Live expands to all iPhone users.
    January 28: Snapchat launches a show called “Good Luck America” with Peter Hamby.
    February 4: WhatsApp increases group chat user limit to 256 people, aiming to increase enterprise appeal, including to publishers.
    February 9: Google AMP announces solutions for subscription-supported publications, and Adobe Analytics integration.
    February 10: Twitter changes algorithm to make sure users see tweets they are likely to care about.
    February 10: On Instagram, publishers can now see video views and can do account switching. Instagram hits 200,000 advertisers, and 75 percent are outside of the US.
    February 12: Reports that Snapchat will let users subscribe to Discover channels and that it will go from logo button to magazine cover look by May.
    February 24: Google AMP articles go live.
    February 25: Snapchat partners with Nielsen Digital Ad Ratings to measure, transparently, the effectiveness of ad campaigns.
    February 26: Facebook Live rolled out to all Android users.
    February 28: Snapchat Live Stories, beginning with the Oscars, will be viewable on the web for special occasions.
    March 1: Facebook changes algorithm to prioritize Live Video, especially Live video that is broadcasting.
    March 15: Instagram announces that starting in May users’ feeds will be algorithmically driven, instead of real-time.
    March 15: Apple News app opens to all publishers.
    March 24: On Facebook, publishers can see daily activity around a video.
    March 29: Snapchat Terms of Service updated to add the potential to incorporate third-party links and search results in Snapchat services.
    March 31: Facebook creates option for publishers to autoplay and non-autoplay video ads in Instant; can have pre-roll video ads in any editorial video; and can have one more ad unit at the base of articles.
    April 5: Twitter announces live video deal to stream NFL games, and begins pushing for live video deals with publishers.
    April 7: Facebook allows Live Video within groups and events, live reactions from viewers, live filters, the ability to watch live with friends, a live map, and also live video in trending and search.
    April 8: Branded content will be allowed as Facebook Instant Articles with the sponsor tagged.
    April 12: Facebook makes several announcements at F8 that are relevant to publishers: the Live video API will be open for publishers who want to experiment/innovate; Instant Articles is open to all publishers; publishers will be able to use messenger bots to distribute stories.
    April 21: Facebook tweaks the algorithm to focus on articles people are likely to spend time viewing.
    April 28: Twitter moves to the News category in the Apple app store.
    May 9: Gizmodo reveals details that Facebook’s Trending Topics is actively curated by people who “suppressed” conservative news.
    May 12: Facebook releases a 28-page internal document outlining guidelines for staff curating Trending Topics, in response to media reporting suggesting potential bias.
    May 19: Instagram adds video to carousel ads.
    May 23: Facebook’s general counsel responds to Congress Republicans concerned about bias with a letter; the previous week, Facebook’s legal team met with Chairman of the US Senate Commerce Committee John Thune.
    May 24: Instagram adds media buying as fourth advertising partner category.
    May 24: Facebook says it will revise the way it curates its Trending topics section, including no longer using external websites to validate a story’s importance.
    May 24: Twitter announces changes to simplify Tweets including what counts toward your 140 characters, @names in replies and media attachments (like photos, GIFs, videos, and polls) will no longer “use up” valuable characters.
    May 26: Facebook allows for their Audience Network to be used for ads to be seen off-Facebook, a move seen as competitive with Google.
    June 2: Facebook Notify is shut down.
    June 2: Google AMP launches in France, Germany, Italy, UK, Russia, and Mexico.
    June 7: Google announces preliminary results from AMP showing that 80 percent of publishers are seeing higher viewability and 90 percent are seeing higher engagement.
    Between June 6 and 12: Intel becomes the first brand to publish content directly to Instant Articles.
    June 9: Facebook launches 360 photo. Users can move their phones for a spherical view within a photo.
    June 16: Snapchat announces an online magazine called Real Life.
    June 21: Twitter Engage launches, allowing for better insights and data. Also, the length of user video is increased from 30 to 140 seconds.
    June 22: The Wall Street Journal reports that Facebook has made deals worth more than $50 million with 140 video creators, including publishers, to use Live, since those partnerships were first announced in March.
    June 29: Facebook’s algorithm changes to place further emphasis on family and friends and on creating a feed that will “inform” and “entertain.”
    July 6: Snapchat introduces Memories.
    July 14: Facebook Instant Articles can be posted to Messenger.
    July 19: Google announces AMP for ads, to bring ads to the same load time as AMP articles.
    July 11—12: Twitter announces multiple live video deals, including with CBS, Wimbledon, and Bloomberg.
    August 2: Instagram Stories launches. A compilation of updates a user’s friends see; a Snapchat Stories clone.
    August 4: Facebook tweaks the News Feed to reduce clickbait.
    August 9: Facebook blocks ad blockers.
    August 11: Facebook’s News Feed is modified to place emphasis on “personally informative” items.
    August 26: Facebook Trending becomes fully algorithmically driven.
    August 27: Apple changes its Spotlight feature so that articles open in-app, hurting publishers.
    September 7: Snapchat axes Local Stories.
    September 8: Google releases a study of more than 10,000 mobile domains showing that speed matters for engagement and revenue.
    September 12: Twitter announces a live streaming partnership with Cheddar.
    September 15: Publishers can sell subscriptions within the Apple News app; Apple keeps 30 percent of subscriptions made through the app, and 15 percent of renewals.
    September 15: Improvements are made to call to action button on Instagram ads to make them more visible; with video, though, the destination URL opens first within Instagram with the video continuing to play at the top.
    September 20: All Google search results, not just the carousel, now show AMP pages.
    September 23: Snapchat announces Spectacles and becomes Snap, Inc.
    September 29: Twitter opens Moments to everyone.
    September 30: Updates to Google AMP so it better supports a variety of ad sizes.
    October 12: Facebook also allows for additional ad formats for publishers in Instant Articles.
    October 17: Signal, for newsgathering on Facebook, will include a Live Video column.
    October 18: Snapchat switches from a revenue sharing arrangement with publishers on Discover to an up-front licensing arrangement.
    October 20: Facebook allows 360 photo and video within Instant Articles.
    October 28: Facebook rolls out a voting planner for users where they can view and save the initiatives and candidates they will select.
    November 10: Instagram introduces ability to add “see more” links to Instagram Stories.
    November 11: After controversy, Facebook will curb ethnic affinity marketing by advertisers focused on, for example, credit or housing, who target users based on whether Facebook has determined they are likely Latino or Asian American, for example.
    November 11: Facebook buys CrowdTangle, which is used by publishers for analytics.
    November 11: Vertical ads are allowed on Instagram.
    November 16: Facebook will work with more third parties to ensure the integrity of their metrics after they miscounted publisher performance.
    November 19: In response to post-election pressure, Mark Zuckerberg addresses Facebook’s role in fake news.
    November 21: Instagram Stories introduces Live Stories for live video streaming.
    November 22: To be allowed into China, Facebook built a censorship tool into its platform.
    December 5: Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter, and YouTube partner to address terrorism content online.
    December 5: In an effort to combat misinformation, Facebook prompts users to report “misleading language.”
    December 5: Google updates its search bar so that there is no longer an autocomplete that reads “are Jews evil.”
    December 12: Facebook launches Live 360 video. Users can have a spherical view of live video.
    December 14: Facebook begins talks with video producers and TV studios for original content.
    December 20: Facebook launches Live Audio. Allows for formats like news radio.
    December 22: Business Insider reports that Twitter inadvertently inflated video ad metrics.

    2017

    January 9: Recode reports that Facebook will allow mid-roll video ads, with 55 percent of revenue going to publishers.
    January 11: Facebook announces the Facebook Journalism Project, to work with publishers on product rollouts, storytelling formats, promotion of local news, subscription models, training journalists, and, on the fake news front, collaborating with the News Literacy Project and fact checking organizations. On the same day, TechCrunch reports Facebook agrees to censor content in Thailand at government’s request.
    January 11: Instagram Stories will now have ads, and insights are increased, as the platform hits 150 million users.
    January 12: Snapchat releases a universal search bar.
    January 17: News that Facebook will end Live video deals with publishers in favor of longer more premium video.
    January 19: Snapchat will allow ad targeting using third-party data.
    January 23: Snapchat updates publisher guidelines: content must be fact checked and cannot be risqué, and will offer some an “age gate” and will require graphic content warnings.
    January 24: Instagram makes Live Stories available globally.
    January 25: News that Facebook begins testing Stories, like those on Instagram and Snapchat, at the top of the mobile app in Ireland. Facebook also updates Trending to show publisher names, identify trends by number of publishers and not engagement on a single post, and show everyone in a region the same content. In Thailand and Australia, Facebook will have ads like the ones that are in News Feed inside of Messenger.
    January 25: Recode reports that more than 200 publishers have been banned from Google’s AdSense network in an effort to combat fake news.
    January 26: Facebook’s News Feed algorithm will reward publishers/videos that keep people watching and mid-roll ads won’t play until 90 seconds.
    January 26: Twitter’s Explore tab will allow users to see trends, Moments, Live, and search.
    January 30: Twitter’s VP of engineering announces an effort to combat harassment.
    January 30: Snapchat announces IPO.
    January 31: Facebook updates the algorithm to prioritize “authentic” content and will surface posts around real-time/breaking news. Facebook also announces new and expanded partnerships with Nielsen, ComScore, DoubleVerify (for a total of 24 third-party entities) to give better insights into performance of ads.
    February 1: Instagram introduces Albums feature in limited release. Widespread release later in the month.
    February 2: Snapchat IPO documents show that media partners were paid $58 million, and that Snap-sold ad revenue was 91 percent.
    February 6: Google allows for AMP articles URL to indicate the publisher’s name and not just Google.
    February 6: News surfaces that a Syrian refugee identified as a terrorist pursues legal action against Facebook on grounds of “fake news.”
    February 7: Twitter continues efforts to combat harassment and improve quality, by “stopping the creation of new abusive accounts, bringing forward safer search results, and collapsing potentially abusive or low-quality Tweets.”
    February 8: News surfaces that French publishers complain of effort required for anti-fake news partnership with Facebook.
    February 10: Facebook further pushes for transparency around ads and says it will allow for a third-party audit.
    February 13: The Washington Post joins Snapchat Discover as Discover shifts to allow for breaking news.
    February 13: TechCrunch reports that Twitter will reduce its support for ad products that are not drawing advertisers.
    February 14: Facebook announces an app for Apple TV and Amazon Fire that will allow people to watch Facebook videos on their TVs.
    February 14: Autoplay videos on Facebook will play with sound.
    February 14: Google pulls two anti-Semitic sites off its ad platform.
    February 16: Mark Zuckerberg writes a nearly 6,000 word manifesto, “Building Global Community,” on the future of Facebook and global civil society.
    February 17: Facebook invites media companies to its offices to talk about products to come throughout the year.
    February 20: Facebook allows users to send photos and videos from the in-app camera.
    February 20: WhatsApp launches Snapchat clone, Status.
    February 23: Mid-roll video ads begin on Facebook, following an announcement in January.

    #journalisme
    #médias_sociaux

    https://seenthis.net/messages/591967 via tbn


  • « Madame, c’est abusé, Charlie » | Making-of
    https://making-of.afp.com/madame-cest-abuse-charlie

    C’est leur principal problème. Ils ne cherchent pas l’#information, ils la subissent. Ils voient passer des choses sur les #réseaux_sociaux, entendent passivement des bribes d’infos à la radio ou à la télévision, qu’ils ne regardent plus vraiment. C’est d’ailleurs une bonne chose que Facebook s’attaque aux fausses informations diffusées sans filtre sur sa plate-forme.

    Et nous, #médias traditionnels, nous pourrions aller à leur rencontre avec des formats susceptibles de les intéresser, sur les plateformes qu’ils fréquentent, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Snapchat... Car, ce qui me stupéfie à chaque fois, c’est leur capacité à développer un esprit critique acerbe dès qu’on leur met quelques éléments ordonnés entre les mains. Quand on leur donne de quoi penser, et non un prêt-à-penser.

    Je m’explique.

    #complotisme #critique_médias #médias_sociaux

    https://seenthis.net/messages/560769 via tbn


  • Les vrais responsables des fausses nouvelles, par Evgeny Morozov (Les blogs du Diplo, Silicon circus, 13 janvier 2017)
    http://blog.mondediplo.net/2017-01-13-Les-vrais-responsables-des-fausses-nouvelles #st
    http://blog.mondediplo.net/IMG/arton1836.jpg

    Les fausses nouvelles, de l’anglais « fake news », engloutissent la démocratie. Telle est la récente conclusion tirée par le camp des perdants de 2016, qui rassemble les déçus du Brexit, des élections américaines et du referendum italien. Un raisonnement valable, à condition d’identifier les vrais responsables de ce naufrage, intimement lié au développement du #capitalisme_numérique.

    #désinformation #infoguerre #hoax #médias #médias_sociaux


  • Peut-on répondre à la désinformation ?
    http://www.internetactu.net/2016/12/06/peut-on-repondre-a-la-desinformation

    Depuis l’élection de Trump (voir nos deux précédents #Articles : « Trump : les 5 échecs des nouvelles technologies » et « Facebook, une entreprise politique ? »), la question de la propagation de fausses informations semble révéler d’une véritable crise de confiance dans notre système médiatique et politique, comme l’expliquait récemment le chercheur en science de (...)

    #Enjeux #Recherches #cognition #médias_sociaux #psychologie

    https://seenthis.net/messages/548848 via InternetActu [RSS]


  • Internet, raison et sentiments
    https://www.franceculture.fr/emissions/la-grande-table-2eme-partie/internet-raison-et-sentiments
    http://media.radiofrance-podcast.net/podcast09/12360-28.12.2016-ITEMA_21179411-1.mp3

    Le web - et notamment via les réseaux sociaux - est devenu un espace majeur pour le partage des émotions. Les sentiments vécus lors de chaque événement, collectif ou privé, trouve un terrain d’expression sur le net. Mieux, si le partage de nos émotions est un élément fondamental de la vie sociale, le moyen numérique permettrait encore plus au groupe de bénéficier d’une expérience particulière. L’expression des émotions semble être néanmoins exacerbée dans cette relation dématérialisée. On constate en effet que l’émergence d’Internet modifie la définition sociale des émotions. Que devient notre vie émotionnelle dans un environnement qui exclut toute présence physique ? Quelles nouvelles formes d’échanges émotionnels Internet crée-t-il ? On en parle avec le sociologue Dominique Cardon.

    "La grande transformation numérique est en train de bouleverser la forme de l’espace public. Or, on applique à cette nouveauté beaucoup de critères, de raisonnements, d’interprétations qui viennent de la forme ancienne de l’espace publique. Et du coup, on a du mal à comprendre la nouveauté."

    #filter_bubble #personnalisation #médias_sociaux etc.

    Où j’apprends qu’il y a eu une tribune pour des États généraux du Web indépendant ? On a du en parler ici forcément.

    Et aussi que Google a mis en place un Google actu inversé (qui ne recense que les infos dont tout le monde se fout).

    J’irais chercher les liens plus tard.

    https://seenthis.net/messages/556350 via tbn


  • Sont tombés deux rapports sur les médias et la « consommation » d’informations en 2016.

    – Digital News Report 2016 Worldwide (Reuters Institute)
    http://digitalnewsreport.org

    – State of the News Media 2016 in the US (Pew Research Center)
    http://www.journalism.org/2016/06/15/state-of-the-news-media-2016

    Sur le premier, voir http://www.lemonde.fr/actualite-medias/article/2016/06/15/les-reseaux-sociaux-prennent-une-place-croissante-dans-l-acces-a-l-informati

    Autre motif de préoccupation pour les #médias : dans une large majorité de cas, moins d’un ­internaute sur deux identifie clairement la source d’un contenu lorsqu’il y accède par le biais d’une plate-forme sociale. Plus l’usage des plates-formes est répandu, comme en Corée du Sud ou au Japon, moins les sources sont identifiées.

    (…) Ce rejet croissant des formats publicitaires en ligne s’incarne dans une autre tendance récente : le développement rapide des logiciels antipublicité, le « adblocking ». La proportion d’adblockers parmi les utilisateurs va de 10 % au Japon à 38 % en Pologne, avec une surreprésentation chez les moins de 35 ans. En regard, la propension à payer pour de l’#information est en légère augmentation mais reste minoritaire, souvent ­comprise entre 8 % et 15 %. Seuls les pays plus petits, aux langues plus rares (Norvège, Pologne, Suède), voient ce taux grimper plus haut.

    #sites_d'information #publicité #adblock #médias_sociaux #mobile etc.

    Sur le second, voir http://www.niemanlab.org/2016/06/the-state-of-the-news-media-2016-mobile-continues-its-takeover
    http://www.niemanlab.org/images/StateofNews6.jpg

    http://seenthis.net/messages/500959 via tbn


  • La #curation collaborative de données | Pierre Levy’s Blog
    https://pierrelevyblog.com/2016/03/11/la-curation-collaborative-de-donnees

    (…)

    La gestion des connaissances

    Une équipe de travail, une entreprise quelconque – qu’elle soit publique, privée ou associative – se trouve dans la nécessité de « gérer ses connaissances » pour atteindre ses buts. Le terme de gestion des connaissances a commencé à être utilisé vers le milieu des années 1990, au moment même où naissait le Web et alors que l’idée d’une économie basée sur les savoirs et l’innovation commençait à s’affirmer. L’un des principaux fondateurs de cette nouvelle discipline, Ikujiro Nonaka (né en 1935), s’est attaché à décrire le cycle de création des connaissances dans les entreprises en insistant sur la phase d’explicitation des savoir-faire pratiques. A la suite de Nonaka, de nombreux chercheurs et praticiens ont tenté de déterminer les meilleures méthodes pour expliciter les savoirs tacites – nés de l’expérience – afin de les conserver et de les diffuser dans les organisations. Les premiers outils de gestion des connaissances étaient assez rigides et centralisés, à l’image de l’informatique de l’époque. On met en place aujourd’hui (2016) de véritables médias sociaux d’entreprise, dans lesquels les collaborateurs peuvent repérer mutuellement leurs compétences, créer des groupes de travail et des communautés de pratique, accumuler des ressources et partager des données. Indépendamment des outils techniques utilisés, la gestion des connaissances est une dimension transversale de toute entreprise. Cette épistémologie appliquée inclut la conservation des savoirs et savoir-faire, le développement des compétences et des ressources humaines, l’art de créer et de diffuser les connaissances. De fait, en observant les pratiques contemporaines dans les médias sociaux d’entreprise qui supportent la gestion des connaissances, on découvre que l’une des principales activités se trouve être justement la curation collaborative de données.

    Il existe donc une pratique commune à de nombreux secteurs de la culture mondiale contemporaine, pratique dont les cloisonnements sociaux et la disparité des jargons professionnels dissimulent l’unité et la transversalité. Je fais l’hypothèse que la curation collaborative de données est le support techno-social de l’#intelligence_collective à l’époque du médium algorithmique : écrire et lire… sur des flots de données.

    #veille #attention #médias_sociaux #algorithmie #travail #cognitariat

    Tout en sachant que, comme le précise le billet qui suit :

    (…) l’explicitation totale du savoir tacite est hors de portée, comme l’a bien montré Michael Polanyi.

    Dans le médium algorithmique, le savoir explicite prend la forme de données catégorisées et évaluées. Le cycle de transformation des savoirs tacites en savoirs explicites et vice versa prend place dans les médias sociaux, où il est facilité par une conversation créative civilisée : les compétences intellectuelles et sociales (ou morales) fonctionnent ensemble !

    https://pierrelevyblog.com/2016/03/16/la-literacie-en-curation-de-donnees

    http://seenthis.net/messages/475540 via tbn



  • In search of Facebook love, publishers form link-sharing pacts with each other
    http://digiday.com/publishers/social-world-publishers-taking-link-sharing-facebook

    At work here is what is called, variously, “social syndication” or “traffic exchange,” a technique increasingly in vogue among publishers looking to get their articles and brands in front of other readers.

    (…) “That fiefdom-like thinking that ‘we own this audience and it’s ours only’ is very old media. It’s like people saying, ‘I only subscribe to The Wall Street Journal or The New York Times,’” said Daily Dot CEO Nick White. “It’s just not the right model anymore.”

    #sites_d'information #médias_sociaux

    http://seenthis.net/messages/457756 via tbn


  • More Americans are getting news on Facebook and Twitter | Nieman Journalism Lab via @opironet
    http://www.niemanlab.org/2015/07/new-pew-data-more-americans-are-getting-news-on-facebook-and-twitter

    Sixty-three percent of both Facebook and Twitter users said they get news on the social networks, Pew found. That’s an increase from 52 percent of Twitter users and 47 percent of Facebook users who told Pew in 2013 that they use each platform to consume news. http://www.niemanlab.org/images/PewFacebookTwitter1Redo.jpg

    Mise à jour des #chiffres (américains) concernant l’utilisation des #médias_sociaux pour s’informer (#information).

    http://seenthis.net/messages/390099 via tbn


  • Pathways to #News: How Audiences Discover News Online - Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2015
    http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/survey/2015/pathways-to-news-2015

    Although audiences still consume the majority of their online news from familiar and trusted brands, the way they access that content is changing. Our data show very different patterns of access across countries. In countries like the UK, Denmark, and Finland, branded websites are often the starting point for any news journey. By contrast, in Italy, Spain, Germany, or France a search engine is often the key gateway while social media are important in Australia and Urban Brazil.

    In Japan, the strength of search is partly down to the dominance of Yahoo as integrated news and discovery platform while popular new mobile apps like Smart News and Gunosy explain the very high scores for other aggregators.

    #médias #sites_d'information #médias_sociaux #search etc.

    http://seenthis.net/messages/388210 via tbn


  • Seenthis essaime…

    Comme certains l’ont déjà remarqué, l’association des Amis du @mdiplo va désormais gérer une instance de #Seenthis. Ca s’appelle #Zinc, et ça doit tout à Seenthis (gratitude éternelle) :
    http://zinc.mondediplo.net

    Pourquoi créer une plateforme alors qu’il y a déjà Seenthis ?

    Eh bien pour pouvoir l’estampiller « Diplo » sans vergogne, sans s’attirer les foudres des copains, par exemple. La communauté Seenthis a ses propres tropismes qui font toute sa saveur — qui font aussi que cela reste assez confidentiel (ce qui personnellement me convient tout à fait).

    De plus il est très facile d’alimenter son #Zinc avec son #Seenthis grâce au RSS : le message est recopié à l’identique, avec une mention de la source à la fin, merci @fil) ; c’est ce que je fais car je n’ai pas l’intention de quitter Seenthis de sitôt.

    Zinc est donc une tentative : voyons si une autre instance amène d’autres gens à utiliser, apprécier voire contribuer au logiciel. Voyons si le cadre « Diplo » est propice à quelque chose, sans qu’on puisse dire bien quoi encore — et sans parler du boulot de modération qui pourrait s’ensuivre (qui devrait être pris totalement en charge par un petit groupe au sein de l’association des @amisdiplo si tout se passe bien).

    Question corollaire à celle-ci qui revient : « vous avez réinventé Diaspora ? » Ce à quoi je réponds en général que Seenthis est plus vieux que Diaspora (daté de 2010) d’une part :
    http://seenthis.net/messages/1 ; et que la discussion est déjà engagée à ce sujet là, d’autre part :
    http://seenthis.net/messages/365819

    http://seenthis.net/messages/374416 via tbn



  • The most concerning element of Facebook’s potential new power ~ Columbia Journalism Review, Trevor Timm
    http://www.cjr.org/criticism/facebook_news_censorship.php

    #Facebook is extremely meticulous about what content the public should see. Close watchers of the social media site know that most of the time you only see around 6 percent of what your friends post. For organizations who want their followers to see their posts, it’s even less. But most users don’t know this is happening. As Alexis Madrigal explained, more than 60 percent of users in one study “had no idea that there even was a filtering algorithm, let alone one that looks at more than a thousand data signals to determine what to show a user.”

    Les #médias aux prises avec l’#algorithmie des #médias_sociaux, suite.

    Facebook’s phony claim that “you’re in charge.” ~ Pressthink
    http://pressthink.org/2014/10/facebooks-phony-claim-that-youre-in-charge

    #previously_on_seenthis :

    http://seenthis.net/messages/354848
    http://seenthis.net/messages/311119
    http://seenthis.net/messages/286189

    http://seenthis.net/messages/363787 via tbn