• Covid-19 ’immunity certificates’: practical and ethical conundrums - STAT
    https://www.statnews.com/2020/04/10/immunity-certificates-covid-19-practical-ethical-conundrums
    https://www.statnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/GettyImages-1209558471-1024x576.jpg

    The media’s understandable focus is now on the number of people hospitalized with and dying from Covid-19. Yet most Americans who develop this disease will recover from it on their own after experiencing flu-like symptoms. Some experts see them as a resource for restarting the economy and want to make their status official with the papers to prove it.

    We need to think them through first.

    German researchers have proposed testing 100,000 people for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, and giving “immunity certificates” to those who have these antibodies, which presumably make them resistant to reinfection. The United Kingdom has floated the idea of “Covid passports,” Italy is discussing the idea, and it is being raised in the U.S. as well.

    Immunity certificates offer the enticing promise that an increasing number of people can stop sheltering in place and instead help the world revive. They could play an important role in the period before we have excellent treatments or an effective vaccine. But they raise issues about the science of Covid-19 immunity, about how such certificates would be provided and policed and, most important, about a country split between the free and the confined.

    But no test is perfect. Some detect antibodies that do not exist (false positives), others miss antibodies that do exist (false negatives). False positives may be a particular problem here, as a test might signal positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies when it is really detecting antibodies to cold-causing coronaviruses.

    In normal times, a test is not used until its accuracy and rates of false positives and false negatives have been carefully tested and optimized. But these are not normal times. Such optimization has not yet been done yet for any of the tests under development, and it is not clear how long such a process will take.

    Antibody tests are not the only way to decide that an individual is immune to SARS-CoV-2. We could assume that those who have had the disease are now immune and issue them immunity certificates. But how will we know they had Covid-19? Will an applicant need to show a positive virus test to justify a certificate? Without such testing, it can be difficult to know for sure if someone truly had Covid-19 or if they had something else, like the flu, with similar symptoms. But many people with Covid-19 symptoms have been unable to get coronavirus tests and have even been told not to try.

    Employers or governments might require that only people with immunity certificates be allowed to work in jobs involving substantial human contact, like health care, food, service, retail, transportation, and more. Restaurants, bars, sporting events, concerts, or other so-called public accommodations might admit only those with immunity certificates. Travel by public transportation or the privilege to attend classes in person might be limited to individuals with immunity certificates. But should they be so restricted?

    These certificates have appeal — unless you are one of the many people who end up locked out of the world due to no fault of your own. For you, it is discrimination: some people can work, play, or travel while you cannot.

    #Coronavirus #Carte_immunité #Segregation_sociale

    https://seenthis.net/messages/843384 via Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier


  • Opinion | The Dangerous History of Immunoprivilege - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/12/opinion/coronavirus-immunity-passports.html?campaign_id=2&emc=edit_th_200413&instan
    https://static01.nyt.com/images/2020/04/12/opinion/12olivarius/12olivarius-facebookJumbo.jpg

    The Dangerous History of Immunoprivilege

    We’ve seen what happens when people with immunity to a deadly disease are given special treatment. It isn’t pretty.

    By Kathryn Olivarius

    Ms. Olivarius is an assistant professor of history at Stanford University.

    April 12, 2020

    The article was widely discredited by public health experts and economists, as both logically dubious and ethically specious, but such thinking has already metastasized. The likes of Glenn Beck and Lt. Gov. Dan Patrick of Texas have fashioned the willingness to endure a bout with coronavirus as a patriotic, pro-economy act; Germany, Italy, and Britain are all toying with notions of “immunity passports” — proof that a person has beaten Covid-19 — that would allow people with antibodies to go back to work faster.

    That people could wield their hard-earned “immunocapital” to save the economy sounds like science fiction. But as we wait months or years for a viable vaccine, leveraging peoples’ antibodies may well be part of our economic strategy. If so, we should heed lessons from the past and beware of the potential social perils. As a historian, my research has focused on a time and place — the 19th-century Deep South — that once operated by a very similar logic, only with a far more lethal and fearsome virus: yellow fever. Immunity on a case-by-case basis did permit the economy to expand, but it did so unevenly: to the benefit of those already atop the social ladder, and at the expense of everyone else. When a raging virus collided with the forces of capitalism, immunological discrimination became just one more form of bias in a region already premised on racial, ethnic, gender and financial inequality.

    We know that epidemics and pandemics exacerbate existing inequalities. In the last three weeks, more than 16 million Americans — many of them waiters, Uber drivers, cleaners, cooks, caretakers — have filed for unemployment insurance. Meanwhile, tech executives, lawyers, and university professors like myself can sequester at home, work online, and still take home a paycheck and retain health insurance. Already, richer and poorer Americans are experiencing corona-capitalism differently.

    Once again, American politicians are arguing that viral immunity could be mobilized for economic benefit. While some version of this strategy seems possible, perhaps even likely, we should not allow an official stamp of immunity to Covid-19, or personal willingness to risk the disease, to become a prerequisite for employment. Nor should immunity be used to double down on our pre-existing social inequalities. There is already racial and geographic inequality in exposure to and testing for this virus. The most vulnerable people in our society cannot be punished twice over: first by their circumstance and then by the disease. We have been here before and we do not want to go back.

    #Coronavirus #Carte_immunité #Segregation_sociale

    https://seenthis.net/messages/843386 via Articles repérés par Hervé Le Crosnier


  • #Ségrégation sociale et #habitat

    La #ségrégation_sociale est un fait ancien dans la #ville. Bien avant l’avènement de l’époque industrielle, les quartiers urbains pouvaient être plus ou moins marqués par des formes de division sociale. Toutefois, c’est au cours de la période contemporaine que la ségrégation est devenue nettement plus marquée au sein des villes, au point de constituer très progressivement un objet de recherche. Parallèlement, les pouvoirs publics en France ont placé la lutte contre la ségrégation au coeur des politiques publiques ayant pour finalité la régulation des déséquilibres socio-territoriaux marqués dans la ville. L’étude de la ségrégation est donc indissociable de l’analyse de la politique dite de la ville et des politiques locales de l’habitat. Cette exploration des liens tissés entre l’inégale répartition des catégories sociales et celle des caractéristiques du parc de logement, mais aussi la façon dont la question de la ségrégation ou de la mixité sociale est abordée dans la construction des politiques publiques sont explorées à une double échelle. L’ambition de cet ouvrage est en effet de faire le point sur l’état des connaissances de la géographie socio-résidentielle des villes françaises, tout en prenant appui sur des études de cas développées à partir de trois agglomérations situées dans l’Ouest de la #France. Il s’agit d’une part de Nantes, capitale régionale des Pays de la Loire (550 000 habi-tants en 1999), d’autre part de deux petites villes moyennes qui avoisinent chacune les 50 000 habitants, à savoir Cholet (sous-préfecture industrielle du Maine-et-Loire) et La Roche-sur-Yon (préfecture de la Vendée à l’économie tertiaire et administrative).

    https://static.openedition.org/covers/OB/pur/2181/2181-225x270.jpg
    http://books.openedition.org/pur/2181
    #livre #urban_matter
    cc @reka
    via @ville_en

    https://seenthis.net/messages/513785 via CDB_77


  • « #Pokémon_Go » : les multiples facteurs des inégalités géographiques
    http://www.lemonde.fr/pixels/article/2016/08/03/pokemon-go-les-multiples-facteurs-des-inegalites-geographiques_4977738_44089

    Toutes les communes françaises ne sont pas égales devant Pokémon Go, le jeu en réalité augmentée à succès qui permet de chasser les petits « monstres de poche » dans la réalité grâce à son téléphone. Pour jouer, l’utilisateur de Pokémon Go doit régulièrement s’arrêter à des « pokéstops », des emplacements qui distribuent les pokéballs nécessaires pour attraper les Pokémons et divers bonus.

    Mais ces pokéstops ne sont pas distribués de manière égalitaire sur le territoire. Il y en a beaucoup plus en ville qu’à la campagne, et certaines communes en sont largement dépourvues. Les communes et quartiers pauvres en disposent souvent moins que les plus riches. A tel point que l’éditeur du jeu, Niantic, a été accusé de contribuer à la #ségrégation_sociale.

    Pour comprendre pourquoi ces #inégalités_territoriales existent dans le jeu, il faut se pencher sur le fonctionnement d’un autre jeu vidéo, #Ingress. Egalement développé par Niantic, Ingress est le prédécesseur de Pokémon Go : les joueurs y cherchent des « portails », le plus souvent situés à un endroit « intéressant » (statue, fresque urbaine, bâtiment historique…).

    #analyse_spatiale

    https://seenthis.net/messages/513612 via AF_Sobocinski