• Panama-Papers et journalisme d’investigation : un scoop adjugé à l’intégrité !

    Il faut rester critique à propos du scandale des « Panama-Papers », cependant ce scepticisme ne concède guère place à la moindre réfutation. Sauf la réaction de Vladimir Poutine ou bien celle de l’Algérie, où les noms des chefs d’Etats ne figurent pas directement sur un quelconque listing alors que de larges pans de leur entourage et membres de leurs familles y sont cités, très peu de récusations crédibles nient publiquement ces vérités. Exquis, le scoop, ou bien le « buzz », du Panama ! Wikileaks a (...)

    Actualité, événement, opinion, intérêt général, information, scoop, primauté

    / censure, presse, journaux, dictature, expressions, liberté, journaliste, poète, poésie, livre, écrits, #diplomatie,_sécurité,_commerce,_économie_mondiale, #crise,_capitalisme,_économie,_justice,_Bourse, économie, politique, (...)

    #Actualité,événement,_opinion,_intérêt_général,_information,_scoop,_primauté #censure,_presse,_journaux,_dictature,_expressions,_liberté #_journaliste,_poète,_poésie,_livre,_écrits #économie,_politique,_arts,_corruption,_opposition,_démocratie #fait_divers,_société,_fléau,_délinquance,_religion,_perdition #Chine,_réforme,_développement,_environnement,_Asie,

  • Reporterre sur France Inter : la #Chine n’est pas le grand méchant du climat

    Lundi 28 mars 2016 Une équipe franco-chinoise vient de démontrer que la responsabilité de la Chine dans le changement climatique n’est pas aussi importante qu’initialement estimée. Pourquoi ? Parce que si ce pays demeure le principal émetteur de CO2, pour environ 25 % du total mondial, le gaz carbonique n’est pas le seul facteur du changement climatique. Les chercheurs ont aussi pris en compte les aérosols (petites particules qui influent sur le rayonnement solaire reçu ou renvoyé par la planète) et (...)


    / Climat , Chine

    « http://www.franceinter.fr/depeche-pourquoi-certains-poissons-sont-de-plus-en-plus-petits »
    « http://www2.centre-cired.fr/Equipe/Chercheurs/GASSER-Thomas/article/GASSER-Thomas »
    « http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v531/n7594/full/nature17165.html »
    « http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/node/5735 »
    « https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debate_over_China's_economic_responsibilities_for_climate_change_mitig »
    « http://www.franceinter.fr/emission-la-tete-au-carre »
    « http://www.radiofrance.fr/boite-a-outils/frequences »

  • Xi Jinping’s visit to Czech Republic raises hopes for European grand canal project | South China Morning Post

    President Xi Jinping’s state visit to the Czech Republic next week is raising hopes Chinese involvement can help realise a European grand canal project.
    On his first tour to a central and eastern European country, Xi hopes to elevate the China-Czech Republic relationship into a strategic partnership, and bring about 20 agreements, covering the fields of trade, infrastructure, finance, health, aviation, technology and culture.
    This will be the first time a Chinese head of state has visited the Czech Republic in an official capacity, and the fifth meeting between Xi and his Czech counterpart Milos Zeman since 2013.
    Zeman was the only leader from an EU member state to attend Beijing’s grand military parade in September to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the end of the second world war – a sign that, unlike his post-communist era predecessors, Zeman was moving closer to China.
    “Their discussion will likely focus on the One Belt, One Road plans,” said Feng Zhongping, head of European studies at China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations.

    #Chine , #Republique_tchèque, #Route_de_la_soie

  • China’s Rural Youngsters Drop Out of School at Alarming Rate, Researchers Find

    (Beijing) – Like many other teenagers in his village in the mountains of the northwestern province of Shaanxi, Chen Youliang decided to quit school early so he could follow in the footsteps of his migrant worker parents and find a job in a big city.
    Chen, who left school at 17 and is now 20, works as a cook in a small restaurant in Xi’an, the provincial capital. He says he wants to learn a skill so he can have a different career, but acknowledges that will be difficult. “Very few who leave (school) for a job can resume their studies,” he said.
    Chen is among the millions of students in rural areas who quit school each year without completing high school. Although there are no official statistics, studies by various research institutions say one in three students in villages – some 3 million teenagers on average – quit school every year before earning a high school diploma.
    Boys and girls in rural areas start leaving school at a much younger age than their peers in more developed regions. From 2007 to 2013, almost half the students in poor areas in the central and western parts of the country had left school by grade nine, a study published in December by the Rural Education Action Project (REAP), which involves the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Stanford University and several Chinese universities, found. The researchers, who studied 50,000 students, found something even more alarming: by grade 12, nearly two-thirds dropped out.
    The 2010 census showed that 78 percent of the country’s school-aged students lived in the countryside, and the research report said that “if dropout rates continue as they are today, increasing unemployment and widening inequality could hinder economic growth and stability on a national scale.”
    Surprisingly, poverty is not the major reason students leave school, said Yi Hongmei, a rural policy researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, who pointed out that only 8 percent of students said they left school for financial reasons.
    Schools were not necessarily short of funding either, Yi said, because village schools get subsidies from the government to fund their operations. In 2007, the government eliminated tuition fees for students and started providing free textbooks for the first nine years of education. Students from poor families also get a small living allowance.
    Yet youngsters in rural areas keep quitting school. A government survey in 2013 said that that dropout rates in the seventh to ninth years of school in some regions climbed to 10 percent, up from a national average of 3 percent in 2000.
    Nearly half of the dropouts REAP surveyed said they quit to find work so they could “broaden their horizons and enjoy new experiences.” Another 30 per cent said they chose to leave because “everyone else is doing it.”
    Chen said that like many of his classmates he was bored in the classroom and did not see how his studies were helping his future.
    “Some dropouts are pushed hard by teachers but they can’t pass exams,” said Hu Yongqiang, who left a school in rural Shaanxi when he was in grade nine. “So they run away.”
    Rising wages for low-level jobs have made the lure of city life irresistible to many young villagers. In 2015, the annual income of a rural resident of the poorest parts of Shaanxi was 7,600 yuan, official data show. Meanwhile, a migrant worker can earn around 36,000 a year.
    That seems to be enough to convince a large number of young people from China’s countryside to head to the big city. The country had more than 40 million young migrant workers aged between 16 and 19 in 2014, one expert said.
    Middle School Woes
    Experts say rural junior middle schools – which cover the seventh to ninth years of school – are one of the biggest problems in the country’s education system. Stark inequalities in the distribution of resources have led to this failure, said Wei Jiayu from the New Citizen Program, a non-profit group focusing on rural education.
    The government spent an average of 900 yuan more each year on a student in an urban middle school than on a rural student, government data from 2013 show. A few rural junior middle schools with better teachers and facilities, like science labs and libraries, have higher university admission rates, but many others “are just a waste of time,” Wei said.
    A lack of qualified teachers in rural schools is one of the main turnoffs for students, an education official in the Qinba Mountains area of Shaanxi said. The REAP study found that teachers’ qualifications were linked to their students’ dropout rate. In schools where less than 30 percent of the teachers had a university degree, students dropped out at twice the rate compared to schools with more qualified staff.
    Most dropouts are students labeled by teachers as poor performers, said Liu Chengbin, a professor of sociology at Huazhong University of Science and Technology in the central city of Wuhan. Many teachers tend to pay more attention to students with strong academic records the others, said Liu, because the amount of funding a school receives from the government is linked to exam scores.
    “(Students’ scores) are related to teachers’ performance assessments and salaries as well,” said a teacher from the Qinba Mountains area.
    Some teachers even tried to persuade students who did poorly on tests to quit so average test scores would stay high, said Shi Yaojiang, a professor of education at Shaanxi Normal University in Xi’an.
    And the problems continue into high school. Beijing spent more than 28,000 yuan per high school student in 2013, compared to nearly 6,900 yuan per student in the southwestern province of Guizhou and nearly 5,500 yuan in the poor central province of Henan, research by the education information portal eol.cn in 2015 found.
    Left Out
    Tens of millions of rural workers have moved to urban areas in recent decades, but the country’s system of household registration, or hukou, makes it difficult for them to send their children to good schools in cities.
    Migrants often have no choice but to leave their children in rural areas to be educated. A lack of parental supervision compounds many students’ difficulties in rural schools, experts said.
    Some 60 million children are left in China’s villages to be raised by grandparents or relatives, official data show, and educators say this is contributing to problems keeping children in school. “(The high number of) dropouts is the result of long-term problems,” said a high school teacher in the Qinba Mountains.
    The REAP study also found that nearly three-quarters of rural children showed some signs of psychological trouble. The figure was just under 6 percent for students in cities.
    Over 13 percent of children left in villages by parents quit school by their eighth year of school, researchers found, but only 8.6 percent of those who were raised by their parents in rural villages chose to drop out.
    Researchers are concerned about the career prospects of those who have not completed their schooling. Scott Rozelle, a Stanford University professor who co-directed the study, said that as the country looks to shift from low-end manufacturing to services and value-added industries, the growing number of less-educated workers will be a burden on the economy.
    (Rewritten by Han Wei)

    #Chine #migrants #Enfants

  • Smog-Fighters Target Rural China’s Coal Stoves

    (Beijing) – Chinese leaders looking for a new way to breathe easier plan to prohibit the use of high-sulfur coal for home heating among farmers and poor families in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province region.
    Local officials in these neighboring jurisdictions, which together form a chronically smoggy region about the size of the U.S. state of Minnesota, plan to bar small-scale use of high-sulfur coal by December 31, 2017, according to local officials. The prohibition is likely to affect some 600,000 households in the capital alone.
    Beijing plans to eliminate all coal burning in most of the city by 2017, and help affected households install electric heaters or other forms of low- or no-emissions heating by 2020. Meanwhile, the Hebei government said it wants 90 percent of the province’s household heating to rely on high-quality, low-emissions coal by 2017. Tianjin has also mapped out plans gradually phase out low-quality coal.
    Officials have been working on restrictions in step with orders from Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli. Speaking at a central government meeting January 4, Zhang told local governments nationwide to cut wintertime emissions from heaters and stoves that burn coal with high sulfur content.
    Zhang’s directive laid the groundwork for goals set in a “government work report” delivered by Premier Li Keqiang to the National People’s Congress in March. Li said the country plans to guarantee “good or excellent” air quality “for 80 percent of the year” in 335 cities across the country within five years.
    Beijing’s air quality was rated “good” for only half of 2015, according to the capital’s environmental protection bureau. And the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was especially smoggy through the winter of 2015-16 – a phenomenon that some environmental experts blamed on coal heaters in older “ping fang,” or one-story, homes common in the region’s rural villages and poor urban neighborhoods.
    A recent analysis of Beijing’s air pollution by Peng Yingdeng, a researcher at the Urban Environmental Pollution Control Technology Research Center, a government-affiliated agency in Beijing, found that emissions from the burning of cheap, low-quality coal contributed to 15 percent of the tiny PM2.5 particulate matter choking the city, as well as 10 percent of the nitrogen oxide and 33 percent of the sulfur dioxide in the air.
    Peng’s study also pointed fingers at emissions from cars, industries and power plants – well-known sources of air pollution that the government has been working to better control for years with limited success.
    Homes and small businesses that burn coal in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei contribute up to half of the air pollution in the region every winter, said Zhao Yingmin, chief engineer at the Ministry of Environmental Protection. Output from these millions of coal stoves and heaters combine to reach those peaks while consuming about 10 percent, or some 36 million tons, of all coal burned in the region annually, he said. Beijing’s consumption alone accounts for some 4 million tons.
    Zhao’s conclusions are supported by a study by the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, a government think tank, released in August that focused on the Hebei city of Baoding, southwest of Beijing. The study said the amount of airborne ash and sulfur dioxide emitted by the coal burners that heat households exceeded similar emissions from the area’s industries during the winter of 2013.

    #Chine, #pollution #migrants

  • Quand la Chine s’inquiète de la présence US près de ses côtes, c’est de la mauvaise foi; quand c’est le contraire, c’est légitime
    U.S. Casts Wary Eye on Australian Port Leased by Chinese - The New York Times

    DARWIN, Australia — The port in this remote northern Australian outpost is little more than a graying old wharf jutting into crocodile-infested waters. On a recent day, there was stifling heat but not a ship in sight. “Our pissy little port,” as John Robinson, a flamboyant local tycoon, calls it.The financially hurting government of the Northern Territory was happy to lease it to a Chinese company in October for the bargain price of $361 million, raising money for local infrastructure projects.

    “We are the last frontier; you take what you can get,” said Mr. Robinson, who is known as Foxy. “The Northern Territory doesn’t have the money for development. Australia doesn’t have it. We need the major players like China.”

    But the decision has catapulted the port of Darwin into a geopolitical tussle pulling in the United States, China and Australia.

    This month, the United States said it was concerned that China’s “port access could facilitate intelligence collection on U.S. and Australian military forces stationed nearby.”
    #Chine #Etats-unis #Australie

  • La #Chine et les #terres_rares : l’histoire d’une victoire

    S’il est vrai qu’à l’heure actuelle la République populaire de Chine domine incontestablement la production mondiale de terres rares (elle détient plus de 90% de la production totale), la Chine n’a pas pour autant toujours été le maître du marché mondial des terres rares. Tout au long du XIXe siècle, la France est un leader scientifique dans le domaine des terres rares. Puis, en 1919, le chimiste Georges Urbain fonde la Société des produits chimiques des terres rares qui dispose d’une usine consacrée à la fabrication de briquet au mischmétal et de manchons à gaz à base de terres rares. L’usine, transférée à La Rochelle dans les années 1940, existe toujours et appartient à Rhodia (groupe Solvay). Son activité devrait cesser fin 2016 après presque 100 ans d’existence, faute de rentabilité.

    via @franz42
    cc @odilon

    http://seenthis.net/messages/471853 via CDB_77

  • Enfin une loi contre les violences domestiques en Chine
    Seeking legal help brings shame on Chinese domestic violence victims despite law - Global Times

    On March 1, China’s first anti-domestic violence law came into effect. While many applaud this step, some believe that the law will not help victims of domestic violence unless they can be encouraged to break the taboo about discussing family problems with outsiders and reach out for help.

    A policewoman shows women how to protect themselves from attacks in Hefei, East China’s Anhui Province, March 7. Photo: IC

    When Li Dan (pseudonym) first hit his wife about four years ago, she told him she would go to the village’s women’s rights committee, but in reality she didn’t tell anybody, not even her own parents. She was afraid of what people might say.

    Li and his wife were living in a village at the time. When he laid his hands on her, she was six months pregnant with their son. But domestic violence was quite common in their community, which was why his wife was hesitant to speak out. It was not unusual in their community to see men slap their wives in public because of something they said.

    When she finally said something to her family, her parents, while angry at Li, also said to her, “It must’ve been something you said. Why would he hit you for no reason?”

    For many years, victims of domestic violence in China have had to endure such situations because there are few avenues open to those seeking help. The traditional idea that what happens inside the family should be kept secret has also kept many lips sealed.

    The new Anti-Domestic Violence Law which came into effect on March 1 has been seen as a broad step forward, defining domestic violence as physical or psychological harm and laying out punishments for assaulting, restraining, injuring or imprisoning one’s family members, and verbal threats or abuse. However, more resources and help are required to encourage women to come forward and to then help them when they do.

    #CHine #Femmes #Lois

  • Why China needs defense budget raise - Global Times

    Among all the heated discussions over the Two Sessions, China’s defense budget has attracted the most attention. This is not unusual, because on the path of the nation’s peaceful rise, becoming powerful is consistent with a strengthened military. 

    Generally speaking, China’s national defense and armed forces have a weak foundation. For the moment, the country is trying to improve its defense power to match China’s prosperity, major power status, and to cope with current situation of international politics and military affairs more calmly via national defense and military reforms.

    All this demands that our defense budget should keep an appropriate pace of growth both now and in the future. This year, for example, the military budget in certain fields needs increasing.

    To start with, the current military reform is unprecedented. It requires not only reductions in troop numbers, but also major adjustments to military structures and innovation for combat forces involved in information warfare. Strong support for the military budget is needed for such huge reform and changes.

    In order to establish a new theater command system, the original C4ISR (command and control) system will need to be changed, which means a series of IT adjustments, command links and other changes in military technology in each command organization will take place.

    The retirement of 300,000 personnel also requires more funds. This time, mainly non-combatants will be cut, such as military officers and civilian personnel. Suppose there are around 200,000 military officers and sergeants in total among them, most of whom would choose their future career independently. If each was paid a subsidy of 300,000 yuan ($46,110), the country needs to pay 60 billion yuan altogether.

    Purchasing equipment is another part of the budget. The more advanced the equipment, the more expensive it is. A Chinese type 59 tank cost 600,000 yuan in 1985, but a current type 96 costs 6 million yuan, and a type 99 costs 18 million yuan. This is only one of the examples.

    The nature of China’s future warfare will be defensive. Given China’s strategic policies and operational plans, training exercises to strengthen operational capability are necessary in times of peace. The process will be long in general, yet in hot spots where military conflicts might break out, every minute counts.

    For instance, China can set up a radar warning network in the Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) in the East China Sea and other regions that may have an ADIZ in the future. After China’s battle zones were unveiled, the next step is to integrate military resources, train operational capability in the main battle field, and strengthen battle field constructions on land, sea and air. And it needs a large sum of money.

    Moreover, education and training is also part of the expenditure. Some foreign media and military experts always argue that Chinese armed forces lack training. Why is that? This is mainly due to too small a military budget. 

    Take fight training, fighter pilots from the US and Japan normally spend 180 to 240 hours in the air per year, while ours fly only a bit more than 100 hours each year. This intensified and difficult training requires forceful support from the military budget.

    China’s defense budget in 2015 was 872 billion yuan or $141 billion, while the US allocated $598.5 billion, four times as much as that of China’s. Given its strong military power, the US is now squeezing China’s surrounding strategic environment, paving ways for its rebalance to the Asia-Pacific policy. It has severely influenced our national security.

    An appropriate, limited increase in China’s military budget in 2016 can be afforded by the national economy. In the next 10 years, sustained growth in the defense budget is also predictable, because that is the prerequisite and guarantee of the nation’s safety, dignity, and peaceful emergence.

    The author is a member of the National Committee of the 12th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, and former deputy commander of the Nanjing military region. opinion@globaltimes.com.cn

    #Chine #Dépenses_militaires

  • China’s FX reserves continue to fall but at slower pace | South China Morning Post

    The mainland’s foreign exchange reserves, increasingly a baro­meter of confidence in the economy, continued to fall in February, albeit at a slower pace.

    The reserves fell US$28.6 billion last month to US$3.2 trillion, according to data released by the People’s Bank of China on Monday. That compared to a record drop of US$108 billion in December and a similarly deep fall of US$99 billion in January.

    The data may prompt Beijing to declare capital outflows and market sentiment about the yuan are stabilising, which in turn could help ease fears of a hard landing for the world’s second-largest economy.

    READ MORE: A trillion-dollar question on China’s forex dilemma: just how low should its reserves go?

    Tao Dong, chief economist for non-Japan Asia at Credit Suisse in Hong Kong, said the worst was over in terms of capital outflows.

    Tao said the sharp drops recorded in previous months were not necessarily a reflection of capital flight but were a result of companies shifting dollar debts into local currency ones.

    The yuan rose to a three-week high on Monday after the central bank fixed the reference rate at the strongest level in two months and the US dollar fell against other currencies after weak economic data suggested another interest rate rise may not be around the ­corner.

    Shanghai’s stock market index gained 0.8 per cent.

    #Chine, #Réserves

  • How China is sending man back to the Moon to mine safe nuclear power and become the world’s energy giant - Telegraph

    A fully-loaded spaceship’s cargo base could power a quarter of the world for a year. This means that helium-3 has a potential economic value in the order of about £1 billion a ton, making it the Moon’s most valuable commodity except perhaps for astronomy and promoting tourism.
    China’s lunar exploration programme is proceeding fast, strongly attracted by the prospect of helium-3 mining. In 2013 China managed to land a lunar robot lander. The final stage of their current programme intends sending a robotic craft to the Moon that will return lunar rocks to the Earth.

    #espace #extractivisme #énergie #chine

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  • Man caught smuggling 9k memory cards into China by strapping them to his body | Daily Mail Online



    Smuggling goods from Hong Kong into mainland China is not an uncommon sight for the border guards in Shenzhen.

    Electronic goods from Hong Kong are cheaper than they are across the border, and many people are busted with them taped to their bodies.

    In January last year, a man tried to smuggle 94 iPhones into mainland China by strapping them to his body.


    #douane #trafic #mobile #hongkong #chine

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  • Les #BRICS : une fable de notre temps

    C’est une curieuse histoire que celle des BRICS. Elle trouve son point de départ en 2001, dans un article largement commenté de Jim O’Neill, alors président de la branche « gestion d’actifs » du géant de l’investissement Goldman Sachs, consacré à ce que l’on nomme aujourd’hui les « économies émergentes ». O’Neill mettait en exergue le cas de quatre pays – le #Brésil, la #Russie, l’Inde et la #Chine – pesant tous d’un poids substantiel sur le marché mondial par la taille de leur population et l’étendue de leur territoire. Il leur donnait l’appellation de « BRIC » (BRICs, en anglais, où l’acronyme prend la marque du pluriel). Les avoirs de ces pays, disait O’Neill, croissent à un rythme tel que leur total cumulé est appelé à dépasser celui des pays du G7, dont la liste a longtemps été celle des pays les plus (...)


  • Syrie, une trêve pour la survie des opposants non-islamistes.

    L’accord d’un cesse-le-feu en Syrie remet Bashar Al-Assad en selle. Après 250 000 morts et quelques 6 millions de déplacés, le dirigeant syrien revient en force pour accepter la transition et promet de nouvelles élection législatives dès avril prochain. Le processus politique trouvé pour la crise syrienne, entre les Etats-Unis et la Russie, a convenu tous. Bashar Al-Assad l’accepte et les forces régionales, comme l’Arabie Saoudite et la Turquie, taisent leur condition de son départ. Les (...)

    international, suivi, grand événement, internationaux, monde, continent, Etats, conflits, paix,

    / #Syrie,_opposition,_Turquie,_Qatar,_armée,_Alep,_Damas,_Bashar_Al-Assad,_Liban, #Turquie,_journaliste,_lettre,_prison,_démocratie,_islamistes,_islamisme, #diplomatie,_sécurité,_commerce,_économie_mondiale, (...)

    #international,suivi,_grand_événement,_internationaux,_monde,_continent,_Etats,_conflits,_paix, #Terrorisme_,_islamisme,Al-Qaeda,politique, #Obama,_USA,_Israël,_Proche-Orient,_Palestine #fait_divers,société,_fléau,_délinquance,_religion,_perdition #Afrique,_Monde_Arabe,_islam,_Maghreb,_Proche-Orient, #Chine,_réforme,_développement,_environnement,_Asie, #Russie,Poutine,_Europe_de_l’Est,

  • Transcript: Zhou Xiaochuan Interview

    aixin: The central bank convened its system-wide annual work conference in January. We learned that before the Spring Festival, the branch offices were studying the decisions adopted at the conference and discussing ways to implement them. Can you briefly describe the major agenda items of the annual work conference?
    Zhou Xiaochuan: In the PBOC’s annual work meetings, we usually discuss and analyze the economic situation and financial market developments in China and beyond, and follow up on our tasks to implement the decisions of the Central Economic Work Conference and to advance financial sector reform. This year, we also discussed at length subjects including the foreign exchange market, the exchange rate, macro-prudential assessment, the central bank’s digital money and Internet banking, etc.
    At present, market participants have different views on the outlook for China’s economic growth, which also affects their assessment of the yuan exchange rate. What is your view on this issue?
    There are indeed differences in the views of the economic situation and financial market developments. It is necessary to analyze the current state of China’s economy in a comprehensive and objective way. Overall, the performance of the economy remains within a reasonably strong range. Against the backdrop of a slowing world economy and global trade, and heightened fluctuations in the international financial markets, China maintained a growth rate of 6.9 percent in 2015, still relatively high compared with other countries.
    The change in China’s growth rate can be attributed in part to weak performance of the global economy. It also reflects the structural adjustment policies adopted by the Chinese government. Such a change is conducive to the ongoing efforts in China to pursue more sustainable and quality growth and is beneficial to the rebalancing of the global economy. Going forward, China will strengthen structural reform, especially supply-side reform, in order to strike a better balance among economic growth, structural adjustment and risk prevention, and to achieve sustainable and steady development.
    In your view, what will be the major driving forces for growth in China?
    China’s savings rate remains quite high and will continue to be translated into high investment. Though part of this investment will be outward investment, its proportion will be very small compared with domestic investment. This will not lead to a moderation of investment gains and a reduction of investment opportunities in China. There is a good basis to keep domestic investment at reasonably high levels.
    Despite the change of comparative advantages in trade, China’s manufacturing industry has enormous advantages in upgrading and transformation, by moving up to the middle and high-end of the value chain. The manufacturing industry is going through short-term adjustments, partly due to environmental requirements, to cut expansion into highly polluting industries that consume lots of energy and resources. In 2015, the service sector as a share of GDP increased from 43 percent to more than 50 percent. The space for further expansion is large. In addition, measures have been taken to ease market access for private capitals. Problems are being solved step by step. The scope for mass entrepreneurship is vast.
    There are widespread concerns about the fall of the GDP growth rate. After remaining in double digits for many years, the growth rate has declined consistently, and fell to 6.9 percent in 2015. This has given rise to pessimistic sentiments.
    Among the views expressed on China’s growth, two factors are worth mentioning. First, China contributed enormously to the global GDP growth in 2009 and 2010. With a population that was 20 percent of the world total and GDP less than 10 percent of the world total, China’s contribution of the global GDP growth was over 50 percent. We must recognize the special circumstances and the sharp contrast between China and other economies at that time. While the advanced economies in Europe and North America were responding to the shocks of the financial crisis, China adopted a stimulus package. This situation is not to be regarded as a norm. For China, 50 percent is not a sustainable level of contribution to global growth. At present, China contributes around 25 percent to the world GDP growth, and this is relatively close to normal. This is not a hand landing at all.
    Another factor is that in the past China put a lot of emphasis on GDP. In fact, looking at worldwide experience, there is not a direct correlation between GDP and the exchange rate, especially the growth of GDP and exchange rate movements. For example, overly rapid GDP growth sometimes causes overheating and high inflation, putting downward pressure on the currency. Some misguided views have been expressed in the debates around the world. In fact, the exchange rate of a currency is related to the international competitiveness and health of the economy of the issuing country.
    When we take a closer look at economic theory and international experience, we see that the current account balance, among all the economic fundamentals, is the most related to exchange rate. In 2015, China’s current account surplus remains massive. In particular, the surplus in the trade of goods reached a historic high of US$ 598.1 billion. There is another fundamental, i.e. movements of real effective exchange rate, or the relative movements of inflation, that affects exchange rate. The inflation target of the United States, Japan and Europe is 2 percent. At the end of 2015, China’s CPI was 1.4 percent, a relatively low level for China. Low inflation is conducive to the stable value of a currency.

    #Chine #Yuan #Banque_centrale

  • Thousands of Chinese prostitutes have joined the scramble for African riches - Quartz

    That sex should join China’s list of exports is perhaps unsurprising: the prevalence of prostitution in the Middle Kingdom has exploded over the last two decades. The country has as many as 10 million sex workers—roughly the population of Greece—working in massage parlors, bathhouses and karaoke bars. The southeastern city of Dongguan (population: 8 million) alone has perhaps 300,000 prostitutes.
    Is Chinese sex labor migration to Africa and beyond forced or voluntary? (...) In Cameroon, Ndjio has found that most Chinese sex workers are rural women that move abroad for gigs as waitresses and secretaries, only to arrive and find traffickers demanding sex work for the repayment of plane tickets and visas.

    #chine #afrique #prostitution

    http://seenthis.net/messages/460087 via Fil

  • Le navigateur web norvégien Opera racheté par des Chinois

    C’était le seul navigateur web européen (même si la #norvège ne fait partie de l’UE) : l’éditeur de logiciels Opera Software, coté à la Bourse d’Oslo, a accepté l’offre de rachat d’un groupe d’investisseurs chinois, mené par le fonds Golden Brick Silk Road. Montant : 10,5 milliards de couronnes, soit 1,2 milliard d’euros. Opera est le cinquième navigateur au monde, avec une part de marché de l’ordre de 5,4%, loin derrière Chrome de Google (47,8%), Safari d’Apple (12,9%), Firefox de Mozilla (8,9%), et Internet Explorer de #microsoft (8,9%) selon Statcounter. Léger et rapide, il...

    #start-up #Chine

  • Ce que cachent les soubresauts financiers de la #Chine, par Michel Aglietta (octobre 2015)

    Entre 1993 et 2012, l’expansion de l’industrie a servi de moteur à la croissance. La Chine est devenue la manufacture du monde en utilisant au maximum son atout principal : une main-d’œuvre peu qualifiée, jeune et abondante, en surplus dans les campagnes, qui pouvait être transférée à bas coût dans les villes et qui ne bénéficiait pas des services sociaux de base. Il fallait aussi investir en infrastructures pour en assurer le développement rapide. Il s’en est ensuivi une accumulation excessive de capital, surtout dans les industries lourdes, encore exacerbée par le plan de relance de 2009-2010 en réaction à la crise financière mondiale. Ce régime a créé de gigantesques inégalités sociales et enrichi une élite dont les intérêts pourraient s’opposer à la nouvelle orientation.

    Mais les conditions de viabilité de ce régime de croissance ont disparu. La main-d’œuvre s’est raréfiée avec le vieillissement de la population. Le marché du travail est devenu favorable à une hausse durable des salaires appuyée par des revendications, augmentant fortement les coûts de production des entreprises chinoises. La demande étrangère s’est ralentie. De plus, la croissance forcenée de l’industrie aux coûts les plus bas a exploité au maximum les ressources naturelles, détériorant gravement l’environnement. Il y a donc à la fois un obstacle dirimant à la poursuite de la voie antérieure et une opportunité, celle de changer le régime de croissance grâce à l’essor de la classe moyenne. [#st]

  • #armement dans le Monde : Import-Export d’armes – Armées – Bases militaires – Otan

    Dans cette vidéo réalisée par le collectif UNIS VERS, est traité le lourd sujet de l’armement. En passant des import-export aux différentes armées, bases militaires, jusqu’à l’ingérence impériale Étasunienne. Une carte présente les différents acteurs et leurs implications dans ce monde guerrier que nous connaissons trop peu. Un tour d’horizon réalisé à merveille par le collectif UNIS VERS, qui nous […]

    #Géopolitique #Guerre #Vidéos #armes #Chine #Etats-unis #Europe #nucléaire #russie

  • Routes de la soie : le plan de Pékin pour dominer le monde, Les Echos Week-end



    La Chine n’est pas au mieux de sa forme. Mais elle poursuit son ambition : retrouver, d’ici à 2050, la place centrale qu’elle estime être la sienne dans le monde. Un gigantesque programme d’infrastructures en Europe, en Asie centrale et en Afrique, vise à sécuriser ses échanges et à contrôler les mers. L’Inde et la Russie s’inquiètent.

    #chine #route_de_la_soie

    http://seenthis.net/messages/456175 via Reka

  • How One Intelligent Machine Learned to Recognize Human Emotions | MIT Technology Review

    Nobody knew how to identify people’s emotional states by looking at their brain waves. Then a machine learning algorithm stepped in.


    #machine_learning #émotions #recherche #chine #it_has_begun

    http://seenthis.net/messages/453509 via Fil

  • Chinese President Xi Jinping pushes trade over politics in Middle East | South China Morning Post

    President Xi Jinping (習近平) is due to arrive in Iran today after ­outlining China’s policy in the Arab world as Beijing pursues a bigger diplomatic presence in the region.

    Xi delivered a speech at the headquarters of the Arab League in Cairo, which groups 22 Arabic nations, on Thursday after a stop in Saudi Arabia.

    He said China would set up a US$20 billion common investment fund with the United Arab Emirates and Qatar, and pledged 230 million yuan (HK$273.4 million) in humanitarian aid for Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, and Yemen. Beijing would also give US$300 million to boost China-Arab law enforcement cooperation, Xinhua reported.

    Xi said development was the solution to easing unrest in the Middle East, and China did not seek to foster proxies or build a sphere of influence in the region.

    During his stay in Cairo, Xi said China and the Arab world would together map their own path to development, defend peace in the region, promote mutually beneficial cooperation and advocate multiculturalism.

    Mainland diplomatic observers said China was positioning itself as a key player in the Middle East using its economic muscle.

    China’s Foreign Ministry last week issued the nation’s first policy paper on developing ties with the Arab region, stressing that Beijing would place energy cooperation at the core, push forward infrastructure construction and facilitate trade and investment. It would also pursue breakthroughs in technologies in nuclear energy, space-based communications and new energy.

    Li Guofu, a Middle East affairs expert said China was attempting to show it would be a “practical” player in the region through ­infrastructure projects. Wang Wen, a researcher from the Chongyang Institute for Financial Studies at Renmin University, said “assisting local economic growth through infrastructure development and trade is what China is good at” and also something that locals “would not ­reject”.

    After massive economic deals signed in Saudi Arabia, Xi told Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi that China was willing to participate in Egypt’s key projects like the development of the Suez Canal Corridor and the construction of a new administrative ­capital.

    These two projects were central to Sisi’s plans to stimulate Egypt’s economy, in which Chinese investment and participation would be crucial, Li said.

    The Suez Canal project, which adds a 35km second shipping lane to the existing 164km passageway, was completed last year to ease ship traffic between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.

    Li said the largest challenge facing Sisi’s administration was improving his people’s livelihood.

    “It is where China’s ‘One Belt, One Road’ development plan comes in,” Li said.

    In Saudi Arabia, Xi vowed to speed up free-trade talks with the region, and signalled support for Yemen’s Saudi-backed government, which is fighting the Iran-allied Houthi militia.

    Beijing will be closely watched on how it strikes a balance between Riyadh and Tehran, which recently severed diplomatic ties after Saudi Arabia executed a Shiite cleric. Wang said China was expected to sign lucrative deals with Iran as well, and would refrain from getting deeply involved in the disputes between Riyadh and Tehran.
    #Chine, #Iran,#Arabie_Saoudite

  • Les 140 tigres et les milliers de mouches dans la corruption chinoise

    Nous avons pris habitude de suivre la campagne anticorruption en Chine. Tellement le fléau, dont souffre aussi toute l’humanité, méritait d’être entaillé par la battue idéologique du communisme qui évoque la « justice sociale », qu’il devient intéressant. Cependant ce qui se passe, avec un suivi des données sur les procédures engagées par la justice, n’est en rien démonstratif de réussite. Mais lue depuis une ONG de John D. Rockefeller, la traque donne à réfléchir… La lutte contre la corruption en Chine par (...)

    international, suivi, grand événement, internationaux, monde, continent, Etats, conflits, paix,

    / censure, presse, journaux, dictature, expressions, liberté, #diplomatie,_sécurité,_commerce,_économie_mondiale, #crise,_capitalisme,_économie,_justice,_Bourse, fait divers, société, fléau, (...)

    #international,suivi,_grand_événement,_internationaux,_monde,_continent,_Etats,_conflits,_paix, #censure,_presse,_journaux,_dictature,_expressions,_liberté #fait_divers,_société,_fléau,_délinquance,_religion,_perdition #Chine,_réforme,_développement,_environnement,_Asie, #Socialisme,_Amérique_Latine,_Chine,_marxisme,_égalité,_pauvreté,_justice,_sociale