• AI can read your emotions. Should it ? | Technology | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/aug/17/emotion-ai-artificial-intelligence-mood-realeyes-amazon-facebook-emotie

    Advertisers, tech giants and border forces are using face tracking software to monitor our moods – whether we like it or not It is early July, almost 30C outside, but Mihkel Jäätma is thinking about Christmas. In a co-working space in Soho, the 39-year-old founder and CEO of Realeyes, an “emotion AI” startup which uses eye-tracking and facial expression to analyse mood, scrolls through a list of 20 festive ads from 2018. He settles on The Boy and the Piano, the offering from John Lewis that (...)

    #Mars #Apple #Coca-Cola #NTT #algorithme #Alexa #domotique #iBorderCtrl #biométrie #migration #émotions #facial #reconnaissance #frontières #mouvement #surveillance (...)

    ##vidéo-surveillance
    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/ac506cc1e79119d0302d1909feecd1cbfa9e2a4e/0_0_2560_1536/master/2560.jpg

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  • U.S. Senators propose facial recognition moratorium for federal government | VentureBeat
    https://venturebeat.com/2020/02/12/u-s-senators-propose-facial-recognition-moratorium-for-federal-governme

    Two Democratic U.S. Senators today proposed legislation that requires a moratorium on facial recognition use by federal agencies, government employees, and law enforcement without a warrant until a Congressional commission can act to recommend guidelines and place limits on use of the technology. The bill, named the Ethical Use of Artificial Intelligence Act, is being introduced today by Senators Cory Booker (D-NJ) and Jeff Merkley (D-OR). It would establish a 13-member Congressional (...)

    #algorithme #CCTV #biométrie #facial #reconnaissance #vidéo-surveillance #frontières #surveillance (...)

    ##_
    https://venturebeat.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/alex-knight-B0-kMa8BgU-unsplash.jpg

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  • Opinion | The Government Uses ‘Near Perfect Surveillance’ Data on Americans - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/07/opinion/dhs-cell-phone-tracking.html

    Congressional hearings are urgently needed to address location tracking. “When the government tracks the location of a cellphone it achieves near perfect surveillance, as if it had attached an ankle monitor to the phone’s user,” wrote John Roberts, the chief justice of the Supreme Court, in a 2018 ruling that prevented the government from obtaining location dataClose X from cellphone towers without a warrant. “We decline to grant the state unrestricted access to a wireless carrier’s database (...)

    #CBP #algorithme #smartphone #géolocalisation #migration #data #DataBrokers #surveillance (...)

    ##frontières
    https://static01.nyt.com/images/2020/02/08/opinion/08tracking-web/08tracking-web-facebookJumbo.png

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  • MONITORYOU : the MilliONs beIng spenT by the eu on develOping surveillance tech to taRget YOU | PI
    https://www.privacyinternational.org/long-read/3341/monitoryou-millions-being-spent-eu-developing-surveillance-tec

    The European Union (EU) spends billions on research and development aimed at driving economic growth and jobs, as well as furthering the bloc’s broader agenda. Within the current budget, known as Horizon 2020 and covering the years 2014-2020, some €80 billion has been made available for research in a huge number of areas, ranging from finding cures for diseases to helping keep the earth viable for life. From the same budget, it also funds a lot of projects aimed at developing surveillance (...)

    #algorithme #robotique #CCTV #anti-terrorisme #biométrie #migration #facial #prédiction #reconnaissance #vidéo-surveillance #data #frontières #SocialNetwork #surveillance (...)

    ##PrivacyInternational
    http://www.privacyinternational.org/sites/default/files/flysystem/styles/large/local-default/2020-01/P025128000501-773148_1.jpg

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  • Black-Boxed Politics : - Katarzyna Szymielewicz - Medium
    https://medium.com/@szymielewicz/black-boxed-politics-cebc0d5a54ad

    Artificial intelligence captures our imagination like almost no other technology : from fears about killer robots to dreams of a fully-automated, frictionless future. As numerous authors have documented, the idea of creating artificial, intelligent machines has entranced and scandalized people for millennia. Indeed, part of what makes the history of ‘artificial intelligence’ so fascinating is the mix of genuine scientific achievement with myth-making and outright deception. A certain amount (...)

    #algorithme #iBorderCtrl #éthique #migration #racisme #technologisme #domination #fraude #prédiction #frontières #santé #discrimination #surveillance (...)

    ##santé ##bug
    https://miro.medium.com/max/1200/1*RMeVnj-UKL8gFXo4PiAHGQ.png

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  • Comment les géants de la tech manipulent la recherche sur l’éthique des IA | korii.
    https://korii.slate.fr/tech/intelligence-artificille-ethique-gafam-recherche-lobbying-conflit-intere

    Après le greenwashing, l’ethicalwashing ? Un ancien chercheur du MIT Media Lab témoigne. Dès 2018, il est devenu difficile de suivre les nombreux scandales liés à l’IA sur fond de contrats controversés : entre Facebook et Cambridge Analytica ; entre Google et le Pentagone sur les drones ; entre Amazon, IBM et la police sur la reconnaissance faciale ; entre Microsoft et les services de l’immigration sur le contrôle des frontières... Derrière plusieurs hashtags (#TechWontBuildIt, #NoTechForICE, (...)

    #Accenture #Altran #Bouygues #CambridgeAnalytica #DeepMind #Google #Microsoft #Orange #SNCF #Air_France #USDepartmentofDefense-DoD #IBM #MIT #Amazon #Facebook #algorithme #drone #activisme #biométrie #éthique #migration #police #racisme #facial (...)

    ##législation ##reconnaissance ##discrimination ##vidéo-surveillance ##frontières ##lobbying ##surveillance ##greenwashing ##bug
    https://korii.slate.fr/sites/default/files/styles/1440x600/public/warren-wong-4l-e7u6c5ek-unsplash.jpg

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  • #At(h)ome

    Plus de cinquante ans après la fin de la guerre de libération, une cinéaste française et un photographe algérien nous ramènent en 1962 en plein Sahara. D’une zone désertique irradiée aux faubourgs d’Alger, ils suivent le parcours des retombées d’une #explosion_nucléaire dont les #traces dramatiques interrogent la #responsabilité des nations. Un film d’une grande rigueur formelle sur un sujet choquant et inconnu.

    http://d1023456-2104.hosting.hegerys.com/projet/multimedia/film/11067.jpg

    http://www.film-documentaire.fr/4DACTION/w_fiche_film/38258_1
    Un film qui m’avait été signalé par @fil. A voir absolument.

    #film #documentaire #film_documentaire
    #Algérie #France #désert #Bruno_Hadji #Béryl #post-colonialisme #photographie #armes_nucléaires #désert_algérien #bombes_nucléaires #radioactivité #essais_nucléaires #armée_française #barbelé #frontières #explosion #Sahara #Mertoutek #Taourirt (montagne de - ) #nuage_nucléaire #malformations #irradiation #mort #décès #Front_islamique_du_salut #FIS #Aïn_M'Guel #camps #camps_contaminés #camps_irradiés #crime_contre_l'humanité #déportation #internement #Oued_Namous #détention #Reggane

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  • La reconnaissance faciale se déploie discrètement
    https://www.alternatives-economiques.fr/reconnaissance-faciale-se-deploie-discretement/00091344

    Pour soutenir les industriels français, le gouvernement veut faciliter le déploiement de la reconnaissance faciale. Au grand dam de la Cnil et des associations de défense des libertés. Notre identité numérique est-elle en train de prendre un nouveau visage ? Les techniques de reconnaissance faciale se développent rapidement et de nombreux projets se déploient. Le débat sur l’encadrement de ces technologies, lui, a cependant à peine commencé. Alors que la Commission nationale de l’informatique et des (...)

    #Idemia #SociétéGénérale #Thalès #Facebook #algorithme #Alicem #Android #CCTV #smartphone #biométrie #facial #reconnaissance #vidéo-surveillance #data #discrimination #frontières #surveillance # #LaQuadratureduNet (...)

    ##_ ##CNIL
    https://www.alternatives-economiques.fr/sites/default/files/public/styles/for_social_networks/public/http%3A//xml.alternatives-economiques.fr/images/K4-5747181_0.jpg

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  • Agencies test border patrol technologies

    U.S. Border Patrol and the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) conducted 11 days of exercises and demonstrations in August in Sweetgrass, Mont.

    The field test simulated illegal border crossings and evaluated portable, surveillance technologies that provide situational awareness capabilities with the hybrid communications network along the U.S./Canadian border. The network helps U.S. Custom and Border Protection track and prevent border crossings.

    Technologies tested include #Small_Unmanned_Aerial_Systems (#SUAS) designed for border security operations, and #Team_Awareness_Kit (#TAK), a federal open source map-based phone and computer application with #GPS tracking capabilities and real-time collaboration.

    “The demonstrations at the #Havre_Sector_Field_Experiment showed that communications tools like man-portable surveillance, autonomous surveillance towers, short-range surveillance sensors, SUAS, TAK, and satellite communications are both cost and operationally effective,” Shawn McDonald, S&T program manager, said. “Equally important, they are agile and scalable and serve as significant force multipliers for our agents along the northern border. Once these tools are deployed on a wider scale, our agents will be able to expand all their communications networks, simultaneously monitor remote lower-priority areas of the border while physically monitoring high-priority areas and immediately and effectively deploy resources to areas that need them most.”

    https://homelandprepnews.com/stories/40730-agencies-test-border-patrol-technologies
    #complexe_militaro-industriel #technologie #militarisation_des_frontières #frontières #USA #Etats-Unis #surveillance #gardes-frontières #asile #migrations #réfugiés #contrôles_frontaliers #communication
    ping @etraces

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  • Facial recognition : A solution in search of a problem ?
    https://edps.europa.eu/press-publications/press-news/blog/facial-recognition-solution-search-problem_en

    “Be water”. This is the evocative and enigmatic phrase of the current mask-wearing protestors in Hong-Kong. It seems to represent the fight of citizens for the right to be shapeless and anonymous among the crowd, including when exercising the right to protest, versus surveillance by the state authorities. It is undeniable that facial recognition, the biometric application used to identify or verify a person’s identity, has become increasingly present in many aspects of daily life. It is used (...)

    #algorithme #CCTV #anti-terrorisme #biométrie #éthique #migration #technologisme #facial #reconnaissance #vidéo-surveillance #frontières #Islam (...)

    ##surveillance
    https://edps.europa.eu/sites/edp/files/og_image/logo_560x300_0.png

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  • DEEP DIVE : EFF to DHS : Stop Mass Collection of Social Media Information
    https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2019/11/deep-dive-eff-dhs-stop-mass-collection-social-media-information

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently released a proposed rule expanding the agency’s collection of social media information on key visa forms and immigration applications. Earlier this month, EFF joined over 40 civil society organizations that signed on to comments drafted by the Brennan Center for Justice. These comments identify the free speech and privacy risks the proposed rule poses to U.S. persons both directly, if they are required to fill out these forms, and (...)

    #DHS #frontières #surveillance #migration #EFF

    https://www.eff.org/files/banner_library/social-media-surveillance-1b.jpg

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  • What Are Borders For ?

    For most of history, they marked sovereignty or self-determination. Now their purpose seems to have changed.

    https://media.newyorker.com/photos/5dcb20a1eaad300008d73378/master/w_649,c_limit/Jelly-Schapiro-borders.jpg

    In northern Vermont in the nineteen-eighties and nineties, where I grew up in a town whose name was French but where everyone spoke English, the nearby Canadian border was not imposing. Dirt roads crossed the line where New England’s maples become Quebec’s, with no signs to warn passing hikers when they were under foreign trees. On the main highway north to Montreal were a pair of what looked like tollbooths, adorned with flags stitched with a big red leaf or stars and stripes. And when bored customs officers asked you to halt your vehicle, the inquisition to which you were subjected—at least if your Saab or pickup truck bore Vermont plates—was perfunctory. Documents often weren’t required. You could expect to be asked two questions: where you were headed and if you had any liquor.

    There were benefits, in high school, to living near a province more libertine than our wholesome state. On Monday mornings, louche upperclassmen sometimes turned up in the cafeteria with tales of having dashed north, over the weekend, to where the drinking age was eighteen, for a case of Molson Ice. But the pull of difference was matched with a sense, at least as strong, that the border didn’t so much divide two nations as amble over a contiguous region. Sure, people on our side of the line pronounced Gallic place names in mountain English. (Calais sounded like “callous.”) But our shared climate and past helped feed a sense, among humans who also shared the complexion of February snow (this no doubt helped), that we had more in common with one another than with citizens of our vast nations who lived in far-off Vancouver or Phoenix.

    Such cross-border ties are extremely common, of course, among the many millions of people who live near one of the hundreds of boundaries on earth. Most of the oldest borders date from a couple of centuries ago; many count their age in decades. And the ease with which many people straddled them was until very recently exemplified along the now notorious gran linea to our south, which before the nineteen-nineties neither the United States nor Mexico saw fit to mark with anything more forbidding, along most of its length, than an occasional rock pile in the desert. In a part of the continent once thought too dry to cultivate, that porosity was no less vital for Hispanic ranchers and Native Americans than for the builders of what became an agricultural juggernaut, in California and across the U.S. West, which has long depended on willing workers from the south.

    Now Donald Trump’s dream of “sealing” that border has pulled it into the center of our national life. But as the scholar Matthew Longo underscores in “The Politics of Borders: Sovereignty, Security and the Citizen after 9/11,” although the policies that Trump is pursuing may stand out for their cruelty, they aren’t nearly so much of a departure as we may like to think—either from aims held by his predecessors, or from larger trends in how borders have been changing. In fact, Trump has revealed a new consensus among our political classes—and among hundreds of nations on earth—about what borders are, and what they’re for.

    For most of the twentieth century, the “hard boundaries” that did exist were militarized for actually military reasons. These included contested frontiers like Kashmir and a few Cold War hot spots, like the D.M.Z. crossing the Korean peninsula, where opposing armies and world views stared each other down through rolls of concertina wire. Now such scenes are replicated along borders dividing countries whose shared system of government is democracy and whose armies are at peace. This is seen in the more than two thousand miles of heavily guarded barbed wire that India has erected between itself and Bangladesh; or the electrified fence with which South Africa confronts Zimbabwe; or the potato fields that Hungary has laced with menacing barriers to keep out refugees. Since the start of this century, dozens of borders have been transformed from mere lines on a map into actual, deadly features of the landscape. These are places where, as the geographer Reece Jones notes in his book “Violent Borders,” thousands of people each year are now “losing their lives simply trying to go from one place to another.”

    The once obscure field of “border studies” has won new impetus from the global refugee crisis. But a surge of recent scholarship, of which Longo’s book is perhaps the standout, makes clear that there’s much to be gained from zooming out to examine the history and present of borders everywhere. The ways that borders are evolving in the twenty-first century, in step with changing technology, have profound implications for the future of human rights and international relations—and for the vision of sovereignty that’s shaped both since the first governments embraced the principle of jurisdiction over a strictly defined area of earth.

    Many ancient cultures espoused ties to particular landscapes and the resources or fishing holes they contained. But for several millennia after our species’s first city-states flourished along the Tigris, few such seats of political power presumed to identify precisely where, in the no man’s lands between their cities’ walls, one’s realm ended and another’s began. This continued as certain of those city-states, later on, became empires. When, in the second century A.D., Rome’s legionaries lodged a ribbon of limestone across Britannia’s north, they cared little if Scottish shepherds ambled south with their sheep or hopped Hadrian’s Wall. That boundary, like the famous Ming-dynasty battlements outside Beijing that we call the Great Wall of China, was a military installation—erected to slow invaders from adjoining lands, yes, but also to project power outward.

    The builders of these walls never presumed their domains’ edges to be anything more than provisional; they were less concerned about preventing people from crossing or inhabiting their realms than with maintaining access, when they did, to their taxes and toil. The Mayans may have walked the fields and forests, in Meso-America, to mark where one of their ahawlels’ lands ended. But Malaysia’s negeri city-states—in which rulers maintained firm control over the river systems but made little effort to control the hinterlands beyond their banks—were more indicative of a planet whereon, until several hundred years ago, few people conceived of political territory as exclusive real estate. As medieval fiefs evolved into early states in Europe, their edge-lands were still comprised of what their minders called “marches,” and what we came to call frontiers—contested zones where who was in charge, and whether laws obtained at all, was often in doubt.

    The key moment in the transition to what scholars call the modern state system arrived in the middle of the seventeenth century, with the famous treaty that ended the Thirty Years’ War. The Peace of Westphalia was signed by a hundred and nine principalities and duchies and imperial kingdoms, all of which agreed, in 1648, that states were now the only institutions allowed to engage in diplomacy and war, and that they would also now be accorded the right to “absolute sovereignty” over their territory. There’s a reason that the great majority of political maps we’d recognize as such date from this era: Westphalia gave states a vested interest in laying claim, with the help of the mapmakers they employed, to jurisdiction over a defined patch of sod. This led to some beautiful maps—and implanted in people’s minds, for the first time, shapes like the one we now associate with France. But few efforts were made to make those maps’ borders clear to inhabitants. The question of whose sovereignty certain shepherds lived under, in notoriously liminal zones like the Pyrenees or Alsace, would remain murky well into the era when sovereignty began to be transferred from kings to laws.

    As the Harvard historian Charles S. Maier recounts in “Once Within Borders,” a factor that helped change this, in the nineteenth century, was the spread of new technologies—the telegraph, the railroad—that enabled central governments, even in countries as vast as the United States, to think that they might actually be able to govern all of their territory. Another was a series of increasingly bloody wars in Europe and elsewhere that culminated, between 1914 and 1918, in a conflict that saw humankind kill off some sixteen million of its members. Near the end of the First World War, Woodrow Wilson proposed that the international community might prevent such horrors if it followed his Fourteen Points, which became central, in January, 1919, to the Paris Peace Conference. Key among them was the principle that some of the globe’s borders be redrawn “along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.”

    This vision was born from a war fuelled by the desire of Bosnians and others for self-rule. It also reflected an idea—that any national group should aspire to and defend a sovereign bit of land—that’s animated countless struggles since, for “self-determination” or its opposite. But this idea also had its drawbacks. One was the danger, as another world war soon made clear, of imagining a map of Europe that furnished for each of its language groups what the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel termed a Lebensraum, or “living space.” Another was that Wilson’s dictum pointedly did not extend beyond Europe—and especially not to Africa, whose vast acreage had only recently been carved into territories. Those territories were anything but “clearly recognizable” to the colonial owners who tacked a big map of the continent to the wall of a Berlin ballroom, in 1884, and drew their borders with scant regard for the language groups and ancestral homelands they crossed.

    Such are the tortured roots of our current international system. The United Nations’ expectation that each of its member states respect the territorial sovereignty of its neighbors has formed, since 1948, the core of its efforts to maintain world peace. That most of the U.N.’s members have bought into this notion is why, in the late twentieth century, many of the world’s borders came to resemble the United States and Canada’s. In the nineties, there was a brief turn from this project, as celebrants of globalization hailed a borderless world augured by, for example, the European Union’s opening of internal frontiers. Now that vision has collapsed, eroded by mass migration and anxiety. For scholars like Longo, we have entered an era of “bordering” without precedent.

    What changed? For Longo, the answer, in large part, is 9/11. Since the attacks in New York, he argues, there has been a profound shift in how borders are conceived, installed, and sustained. The most obvious change has been a physical escalation. Over the past eighteen years, for example, the U.S Border Patrol grew to employ twenty thousand agents, becoming the nation’s largest enforcement agency. Throughout the world, anxiety about terrorism has helped drive a trend toward states erecting boundaries to deny entry to potential bad actors. It has seen one prominent U.N. member state, Israel, build some four hundred and seventy miles of barriers, through the territory of its Palestinian neighbors, whose purpose is “security” but which in effect seizes land not regarded by the U.N. as its own. These developments have occurred at a time when the number of people worldwide who’ve been displaced by violence is at an all-time high—some seventy million, according to the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees.

    Many of those refugees hail from a region destabilized by the United States’ invasion of Iraq, in 2003, and its War on Terror. In the early two-thousands, Mumbai, Madrid, Bali, and London experienced their own terrorist attacks, and, as Longo details in his book—which is distinguished by his efforts to actually speak with the officials responsible for executing the ideas that he’s interested in—those countries gladly followed the United States’s lead. Dozens if not hundreds of states around the world turned questions of customs and immigration enforcement, once left to anonymous bureaucrats, into pressing matters of national defense.

    Not a few scholars of politics and law, in those years, began to try to understand what was happening to the world’s borders. Perhaps the most prescient was Wendy Brown, whose book “Walled States, Waning Sovereignty,” was published in 2010. Brown noted the burgeoning popularity of walled borders, years before Trump’s rise, and predicted that nativist politicians would continue to build boundaries that, she argued in a preface to the 2016 edition, would “not merely index, but accelerate waning state sovereignty.” What she meant was that nation-states were reacting to their dwindling ability to control the movement of information, money, and humans over their territory by building “visual emblem[s] of power and protection that states increasingly cannot provide.” But by doing so, they only highlighted their lack of control, enriching the traffickers and syndicates that have profited from having to find new ways to get their desperate clients and wares, obstacles be damned, where they want to go.

    About the latter point, Longo can’t disagree. But he has a different argument to make about what “bordering” tells us about the future of states. Sovereignty, to his mind, hasn’t so much waned as transformed. Governments today have never known so much about the people they govern, or been more determined to know more about those entering their territory. For these same reasons, they’ve come to share the once indivisible responsibility for policing their edges. This is the second plank of the post-9/11 shift: with the hardening of physical barriers came the rise, unprecedented in history, of cross-border collaboration in the name of surveillance. This obtained even in the most neutral of boundaries. In the summer of 2003, I returned home from a visit to Canada and was asked for the first time, by an officer dressed in the stiff new duds of the Department of Homeland Security, to hand over my passport. I can still recall being struck, as he scanned its barcode into a computer, by a thought that now seems quaint: the government was endeavoring to track and store data, accessible in real time, about every time any person left or entered the U.S.

    Borders were once where sovereignty ended, or began. Now they’re places where states partner with their neighbors to manage and monitor who and what moves between them. This trend toward “co-bordering”—the joint management of overlapping jurisdictions—is a momentous change, Longo writes. It’s also a product of our era, in which national defense has become a matter less of confronting rival states than of working out more efficient ways to, in the words of one Pentagon official, “magnify our focus down to the individual person level.” At the U.S.-Mexico border, one U.S. official says, this means working with his Mexican counterparts to build a “layered detection system that focuses on risk-based screening, enhanced targeting and information sharing.” Another puts it this way: “The wider we make our borders, the more effective we’ll be.” The quote neatly summates what Longo calls the trend to “thick” borders, witnessed around the world.

    In the U.S., these trends have been formalized in treaties to which we’re now party with both Mexico (the 21st Century Border Initiative, signed in 2010) and Canada (the Beyond the Border agreement, from 2011), which allow for joint surveillance and policing hundreds of miles to either side of where the respective countries meet. The agreements also foster more electronic forms of coöperation: the building of “inter-operable” databases that contain biometric and biographical data for the hundreds of millions of people who call the continent home or have visited its shores. In a 2012 report, D.H.S. put it tersely: “Our vision for the northern border cannot be accomplished unilaterally.” The fact that Canadian Mounties are now empowered, with cause, to board an American vessel off the coast of Maine suggests a rather different vision of sovereignty than the one conjured by “America First.”

    Europe is even further ahead. The E.U.’s member states haven’t merely banded together to head off migrants—whose fingerprints whatever E.U. state they land in is rule-bound to collect. They’ve also made data on the inhabitants of the Schengen Area, which lacks border checks, available to one another. Across the sea in North Africa, Tunisia and Egypt have been pushing for regional border-security arrangements to confront continued instability in Libya. The member nations of the East African Community—Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and South Sudan—now maintain shared patrols around Lake Victoria. Even India and China, never models of trusting bonhomie, have since 2013 had an accord in place “to improve security along their 4,056-kilometer border . . . [and increase] cooperation on a military-to-military basis.”

    As in the nineteenth century, technology is what has enabled the state to maintain—or aspire to—control. In recent months, a few U.S. cities banned the use of facial recognition on their streets. But an arguably bigger story about the same technology—by which F.B.I. and ICE agents have been making extensive use of millions of driver’s-license photos culled from state D.M.V.s—highlights how our laws will struggle to keep pace with overreach. (Another example can be glimpsed in the D.H.S.’s push to legalize and expand its officers’ practice, recently revealed, of collecting DNA from detained migrants.) In China, facial recognition is already being used on a mass scale. And in Xinjiang, the home region of the oppressed Uyghur minority, the state has even taken to installing an app on the smartphones of everyone who resides in or enters the region. The app transmits to Communist Party police users’ private habits, as well as their daily travels around the Internet.

    Data has already made tech companies rich, and its strategic import to modern governments is plain. “Data is the new oil,” one Brazilian researcher explains. “Every government has become dataholic.” This emerges, in Longo’s account, as the reason that borders, quite apart from their use for the staging of populist or authoritarian dramas, have become so important: they’re where it’s legal for the government to capture the information that its bureaucracies covet. There was a time when you had to commit a crime, or be suspected of committing one, to have your fingerprints and photograph taken by an officer of the state. Now all you need to do is take a trip.

    For many scholars, the solution to all this lies in addressing the violent inequality that’s pushed a quarter billion people to leave their countries for a better life. This, for anti-capitalist academics like Reece Jones, would entail some familiar-sounding steps. The most prominent is open borders—one of those odd issues where, less for moral than for macroeconomic reasons, libertarian and left-wing positions congrue. Lifting limits on migration has been espoused by writers as divergent in outlook as the Wall Street Journal columnist Jason Riley, the author of the 2008 book “Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders,” and Suketu Mehta, whose important new book “This Land Is Our Land: An Immigrant’s Manifesto” cites the same strong evidence: more immigrants means more jobs. In rich countries where productivity is declining as fast as the birth rate, Mehta insists, “the immigrant armada that is coming to your shores is actually a rescue fleet.”

    But even if we begin to understand this, the main reason that hard borders aren’t going anywhere, Longo argues, has nothing to do with either economics or populism. It has to do with technology’s still-growing role in what nation-states do. In 1975, Michel Foucault famously identified what he called the “oldest dream of the oldest sovereign,” the panopticon: that circular prison whose sight lines were such that a warden at its center could keep tabs—or pretend to—on every subject in his realm. Now even the world’s most liberal governments have tools for gathering information that would have made the Stasi blush. Governments controlled by data, rather than vice versa, begin to process people as “readable texts” rather than as citizens. Borders, in turn, become the places in which those bureaucracies can most easily produce the “data double” that we’ve all become. Longo underscores what this means. “A central aim of this book,” he writes, “has been to identify the grand strategic shift away from nation-states and toward individuals. But what if this foretells the end of the individual too, now at the expense of the sub-individual, a subject composed of data points?”

    It’s a troubling suggestion, not least because of the stark divide that’s already emerged between countries willing to share those data points and those that aren’t. This digital “firewall,” invoked by several of Longo’s sources, excludes anyone whose government doesn’t have the capacity or will to issue passports whose chips and barcodes possess their holders’ vital information. It threatens to turn humans without data, in a word, into humans without rights. With rich countries now admitting foreign nationals based on how much they “trust” the data attached to their passport, such divides will only further inflame the perceived split between nations that have joined modernity and those outside it.

    To explain what this all portends, Longo turns to another hazy episode from history that Foucault used to illuminate his theories of modern society. It involves the moment when many medieval towns were spurred by rapid growth, in the eighteenth century, to do away with their walls—losing their ability to down their gates at night and to monitor, during the day, entries and exits. This change, in Foucault’s account, introduced to those towns a new anxiety about vagrants and outsiders. The shift gave birth to modern policing; armed guards turned their gaze from the horizon to the streets below them. The question for the sovereign state, then as now, wasn’t whether or not to have walls—it was where to put them. The answer, in the centuries since, has evolved with shifts in ideology and geopolitics and technology alike. But the conclusion reached by our republic and most nation-states today, whether spurred by populist strongmen or their own bureaucracies’ needs, about whether to wall their territories’ edges or more aggressively surveil what they contain, is plain: do both. In our new age of “bordering,” the border is drawing nearer, all the time, to the edge of the body itself.

    https://www.newyorker.com/books/under-review/what-are-borders-for
    #frontières #souveraineté #droits_humains

    ping @mobileborders

    https://seenthis.net/messages/813179 via CDB_77


  • #PrivacyWins : EU Border Guards Cancel Plans to Spy on Social Media (for now)
    https://privacyinternational.org/long-read/3288/privacywins-eu-border-guards-cancel-plans-spy-social-media-now

    As any data protection lawyer and privacy activist will attest, there’s nothing like a well-designed and enforced data protection law to keep the totalitarian tendencies of modern Big Brother in check. While the EU’s data protection rules aren’t perfect, they at least provide some limits over how far EU bodies, governments and corporations can go when they decide to spy on people. This is something the bloc’s border control agency, Frontex, learned recently after coming up with a plan to (...)

    #Frontex #migration #frontières #SocialNetwork #surveillance #web #PrivacyInternational

    http://privacyinternational.org/sites/default/files/flysystem/styles/large/local-default/2019-11/Screen%20Shot%202019-11-08%20at%2016.59.19%20small_1.jpg

    https://seenthis.net/messages/812156 via etraces


  • A propos des tremblements déters en Amérindies du Sud, au travers des traductions de textes & prises de paroles de féministes indigènes :

    Les veines ouvertes de l’Amérique du SUD
    https://nantes.indymedia.org/articles/47363
    https://pbs.twimg.com/media/EJeSVKhWsAEanuu.jpg

    Nous, Femmes autochtones du monde, nous devons nous unir et nous battre avec spiritualité et sagesse, car c’est seulement ainsi que nous gagnerons.
    /.../
    La #plurinationalité des territoires n’a pas besoin d’autorisation pour exister. Abattons les #frontières, la solidarité va s’étendre sans barrières. Ni le pouvoir des Églises ni celui des militaires n’arrêteront la lutte pour une vie juste, digne et diverse dans chaque territoire.

    +

    À propos des évènements en cours en #Bolivie / Cette conjoncture nous offre une grande leçon contre le triomphalisme. Participation de Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui au Parlement des femmes de La Paz, à La Paz, en Bolivie, le 12 novembre 2019
    https://portapluma.blogspot.com/2019/11/a-propos-des-evenements-en-cours-en.html

    Je ne crois en aucune des deux hypothèses qui ont été présentées. Le triomphalisme qui dit qu’avec la chute de Evo nous avons retrouvé la démocratie me paraît excessif, une analyse qui vise à côté.
    /.../
    La seconde fausse hypothèse, qui me semble à moi hautement dangereuse, c’est celle du #coup_d’État, qui ne cherche qu’à légitimer, tout entier, avec le paquet et tout, enveloppé de cellophane, tout le gouvernement de #Evo_Morales dans ses moments d’abâtardissement les plus forts.

    Et ce passage ô combien important pour la compréhension :

    Il a fait croire que nous étions face à un gouvernement révolutionnaire dans le style cubain, mais nous engueulait pour les nostalgies gauchistes d’un groupe de machos qui ne sont pas seulement les #machos de Camacho, mais aussi les machos gauchistes, misogynes, qui nous traitent comme chair à canon et comme chair à hameçon afin de créer leurs réseaux de perversion des secteurs populaires.

    + lire aussi

    "Le coup d’État en Bolivie est raciste, patriarcal, ecclésiastique et économique" / “El golpe de Estado en Bolivia es racista, patriarcal, eclesiástico y empresarial”
    source : https://www.pagina12.com.ar/230580-el-golpe-de-estado-en-bolivia-es-racista-patriarcal-eclesias

    traduction de l’intro :

    #Adriana_Guzmán représente le #féminisme #communautaire antipatriarcal de Bolivie et les féministes d’Abya Yala. Elle s’est reconnue dans cette lutte avec d’autres compagnes de la guerre du gaz en 2003, raison pour laquelle elle dit souvent qu’elle a appris dans la rue ce qu’était le #patriarcat et pourquoi le #féminisme était un outil fondamental pour la création d’autres modes de vie. À l’heure actuelle, elle résiste aux progrès des #milices qui ont célébré, sur la place publique l’incinération du #Whipala, le drapeau des peuples #indigènes, geste de violence symbolique tel qu’il est difficile de le nommer sans se déchirer le cœur. Dans ce dialogue, elle définit le coup d’État, appelle à y faire face et à soutenir les actions de la Résistance.

    https://seenthis.net/messages/811742 via ¿’ ValK.


  • Nouvelles #caméras et système de #reconnaissance_faciale à la frontière entre le #Maroc et #Ceuta

    Le système de sécurité à la frontière entre le Maroc et Ceuta se modernise. De nouvelles caméras de surveillance ont été installées dans l’enclave espagnole et un système de reconnaissance faciale devrait bientôt être mis en place, bien qu’aucune date de mise en route n’ait été communiquée par l’Espagne.

    Le ministère espagnol de l’Intérieur a ainsi récemment mis à jour le système de surveillance vidéo dans tout le périmètre de la frontière de Ceuta. 41 caméras #DOMOS et 11 caméras fixes ont été remplacées et 14 nouvelles #caméras_techniques et une plateforme plus moderne de contrôle du système de #vidéosurveillance ont été installées, rapporte El Confidencial (https://www.elconfidencial.com/espana/andalucia/2019-06-09/frontera-ceuta-marruecos-concertinas_2061042). La plupart des caméras dataient du milieu des années 90 et étaient déjà obsolètes, souligne le quotidien espagnol.

    L’une des autres mesures phares annoncées par l’Intérieur est le système de reconnaissance faciale qui sera lancé non seulement à la frontière entre Ceuta et le Maroc, mais également à Melilla, rappelle la même source. L’objectif est de réduire les temps de contrôle aux frontières et d’accroître la sécurité là où des milliers de personnes passent chaque jour.

    Pour la déléguée du gouvernement de Ceuta, Salvadora Mateos, il s’agit de créer une véritable “frontière intelligente”, indique Ceuta TV, à même de “relever les défis du XXIe siècle”, à savoir la hausse de l’immigration illégale.

    Le ministre espagnol de l’Intérieur Fernando Grande Marlaska avait également annoncé en février que les lames et fils barbelés installés en haut de la barrière frontalière (les “concertinas”) seraient bientôt enlevés et la barrière rehaussée.

    Des mesures qui ne sont toujours pas effectives alors que du côté marocain, de nouvelles lames ont été installées pour rendre plus difficile l’accès des migrants à la partie espagnole du périmètre, souligne Ceuta TV.

    “Cela fait partie d’un projet de renforcement des dispositifs marocains en Méditerranée sur 1.000 kilomètres. C’est le résultat d’une analyse qui a débuté en 2016, lorsque nous avions identifié certaines améliorations et que nous les intégrons maintenant”, a déclaré le directeur de l’immigration et de la surveillance des frontières du ministère marocain de l’Intérieur, Khalid Zerouali, rapporte El Confidencial.

    Selon le journal, le ministère espagnol de l’Intérieur attend la fin de l’installation de ces “concertinas” du côté marocain pour enlever celles du côté espagnol.

    https://www.huffpostmaghreb.com/entry/nouvelles-cameras-et-systeme-de-reconnaissance-faciale-a-la-frontie
    #Espagne #frontières #militarisation_des_frontières #surveillance #asile #migrations #réfugiés

    https://seenthis.net/messages/786558 via CDB_77


  • Halt the use of facial-recognition technology until it is regulated
    https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02514-7

    Until appropriate safeguards are in place, we need a moratorium on biometric technology that identifies individuals, says Kate Crawford. Earlier this month, Ohio became the latest of several state and local governments in the United States to stop law-enforcement officers from using facial-recognition databases. The move followed reports that the Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency had been scanning millions of photos in state driver’s licence databases, data that could be used to (...)

    #CBP #algorithme #biométrie #facial #surveillance #étudiants #frontières

    https://media.nature.com/lw1024/magazine-assets/d41586-019-02514-7/d41586-019-02514-7_17096704.jpg

    https://seenthis.net/messages/804426 via etraces


  • Le fichage. Note d’analyse ANAFE
    Un outil sans limites au service du contrôle des frontières ?

    La traversée des frontières par des personnes étrangères est un « outil » politique et médiatique, utilisé pour faire accepter à la population toutes les mesures toujours plus attentatoires aux libertés individuelles, au nom par exemple de la lutte contre le terrorisme. Le prétexte sécuritaire est érigé en étendard et il est systématiquement brandi dans les discours politiques, assimilant ainsi migration et criminalité, non seulement pour des effets d’annonce mais de plus en plus dans les législations.
    Les personnes étrangères font depuis longtemps l’objet de mesures de contrôle et de surveillance. Pourtant, un changement de perspective s’est opéré pour s’adapter aux grands changements des politiques européennes vers une criminalisation croissante de ces personnes, en lien avec le développement constant des nouvelles technologies. L’utilisation exponentielle des fichiers est destinée à identifier, catégoriser, contrôler, éloigner et exclure. Et si le fichage est utilisé pour bloquer les personnes sur leurs parcours migratoires, il est aussi de plus en plus utilisé pour entraver les déplacements à l’intérieur de l’Union et l’action de militants européens qui entendent apporter leur soutien aux personnes exilées.
    Quelles sont les limites à ce développement ? Les possibilités techniques et numériques semblent illimitées et favorisent alors un véritable « business » du fichage.

    Concrètement, il existe pléthore de fichiers. Leur complexité tient au fait qu’ils sont nombreux, mais également à leur superposition. De ce maillage opaque naît une certaine insécurité juridique pour les personnes visées.
    Parallèlement à la multiplication des fichiers de tout type et de toute nature, ce sont désormais des questions liées à leur interconnexion[1], à leurs failles qui sont soulevées et aux abus dans leur utilisation, notamment aux risques d’atteintes aux droits fondamentaux et aux libertés publiques.

    Le 5 février 2019, un accord provisoire a été signé entre la présidence du Conseil européen et le Parlement européen sur l’interopérabilité[2] des systèmes d’information au niveau du continent pour renforcer les contrôles aux frontières de l’Union.

    http://www.anafe.org/IMG/pdf/note_-_le_fichage_un_outil_sans_limites_au_service_du_controle_des_frontieres

    #frontières #contrôle #surveillance #migration #réfugiés #fichage #interconnexion #interopérabilité

    https://seenthis.net/messages/803492 via Karine Gatelier


  • Surveillance & Society
    https://medium.com/surveillance-and-society/about

    Surveillance & Society is the premier journal of surveillance studies, and publishes rigorously peer-reviewed academic work of the highest quality in a free-to-access electronic journal.

    #vidéo-surveillance #activisme #migration #sécuritaire #surveillance #famille #femmes #frontières #jeunesse #Islam #journalisme #travailleurs #voisinage #voyageurs #web

    ##voyageurs

    https://seenthis.net/messages/801284 via etraces


  • The U.S. Border Patrol and an Israeli Military Contractor Are Putting a Native American Reservation Under “Persistent Surveillance”
    https://theintercept.com/2019/08/25/border-patrol-israel-elbit-surveillance

    On the southwestern end of the Tohono O’odham Nation’s reservation, roughly 1 mile from a barbed-wire barricade marking Arizona’s border with the Mexican state of Sonora, Ofelia Rivas leads me to the base of a hill overlooking her home. A U.S. Border Patrol truck is parked roughly 200 yards upslope. A small black mast mounted with cameras and sensors is positioned on a trailer hitched to the truck. For Rivas, the Border Patrol’s monitoring of the reservation has been a grim aspect of everyday (...)

    #Elbit #CBP #CCTV #vidéo-surveillance #exportation #sécuritaire #surveillance #frontières

    https://theintercept.imgix.net/wp-uploads/sites/1/2019/08/elbit-final-1566502564.jpg

    https://seenthis.net/messages/798560 via etraces


  • Hacked Emails Show GOP Demands on Border Security Were Crafted by Industry Lobbyists
    https://theintercept.com/2019/08/01/perceptics-hack-license-plate-readers

    Rep. Chuck Fleischmann often strikes a Trumpian tone on border security, stoking fears during television appearances and on social media about a caravan of Central American migrants, and repeating the president’s pledge to build a wall to prevent unauthorized immigration. In April 2018, during an appropriations committee hearing, the Tennessee Republican took a more subdued and technical approach to immigration issues when quizzing then-Customs and Border Protection chief Kevin McAleenan. (...)

    #CCTV #vidéo-surveillance #hacking #lobbying #surveillance #frontières #ICE

    https://theintercept.imgix.net/wp-uploads/sites/1/2019/07/GettyImages-632851962-1564591399.jpg

    https://seenthis.net/messages/795424 via etraces


  • We Tested Europe’s New Lie Detector for Travelers — and Immediately Triggered a False Positive
    https://theintercept.com/2019/07/26/europe-border-control-ai-lie-detector

    They call it the Silent Talker. It is a virtual policeman designed to strengthen Europe’s borders, subjecting travelers to a lie detector test before they are allowed to pass through customs. Prior to your arrival at the airport, using your own computer, you log on to a website, upload an image of your passport, and are greeted by an avatar of a brown-haired man wearing a navy blue uniform. “What is your surname ?” he asks. “What is your citizenship and the purpose of your trip ?” You provide (...)

    #algorithme #surveillance #frontières #voyageurs

    ##voyageurs

    https://theintercept.imgix.net/wp-uploads/sites/1/2019/07/lie-illustration-01-1564006566.jpg

    https://seenthis.net/messages/794563 via etraces


  • This Israeli Face-recognition Startup Is Secretly Tracking Palestinians
    https://www.aurdip.org/this-israeli-face-recognition.html

    Anyvision Interactive Technologies is one of Israel’s most curious startups. It has shown extraordinary growth, and its technology is being used by the army to monitor West Bank Palestinians at checkpoints on the way into Israel — while using a network of cameras deep inside the West Bank. The company’s co-founder and chief executive, Eylon Etshtein, told TheMarker that his company is sensitive to racial and gender bias and only sells to democracies. Anyvision is Israel’s most high-profile (...)

    #Anyvision #Bosch #Microsoft #Mossad #Qualcomm #Amazon #algorithme #CCTV #smartphone #Identité #biométrie #facial #vidéo-surveillance #sécuritaire #surveillance #consommation #frontières #voyageurs (...)

    ##Identité ##voyageurs
    ##ACLU

    https://seenthis.net/messages/793759 via etraces


  • Border Patrol Chief Carla Provost Was a Member of Secret Facebook Group
    https://theintercept.com/2019/07/12/border-patrol-chief-carla-provost-was-a-member-of-secret-facebook-grou

    When news broke that thousands of current and former Border Patrol agents were members of a secret Facebook group filled with racist, vulgar, and sexist content, Carla Provost, chief of the agency, was quick to respond. “These posts are completely inappropriate and contrary to the honor and integrity I see — and expect — from our agents day in and day out,” Provost said in a statement. “Any employees found to have violated our standards of conduct will be held accountable.” For Provost, a (...)

    #ICE #DHS #Facebook #migration #discrimination #surveillance #frontières

    https://theintercept.imgix.net/wp-uploads/sites/1/2019/07/AP_19011717223005-carla-provost-1562880580-e1562880654126.jpg

    https://seenthis.net/messages/792479 via etraces


  • Amnesty International Condemns U.S. Attacks on Border Journalists and Human Rights Defenders
    https://theintercept.com/2019/07/02/amnesty-international-human-rights-border-report

    The shape of the Trump administration’s approach to policing immigration is at this point familiar. Since January 2017, federal agents and officers have been under orders to enforce a harsh interpretation of immigration laws without restraint. The result has most infamously manifested in the forced separation of immigrant parents from their children and, more recently, a series of horrific reports detailing conditions in border-area detention centers. Though undocumented people have always (...)

    #DHS #migration #surveillance #frontières #Amnesty #journalisme

    https://theintercept.imgix.net/wp-uploads/sites/1/2019/07/GettyImages-1148883046-border-aide-1562019206-e1562019281702.jpg

    https://seenthis.net/messages/790735 via etraces


  • Message de @isskein :
    procès de Scott Warren - délit de solidarité aux USA

    29 mai premier jour du procès de #Scott_Warren, membre du groupe #No_More_Deaths qui aide les migrants perdus dans le désert d’Arizona, arrêté le 17 janvier 2018
    il est accusé de « complot criminel de transport et d’hébergement de migrants illégaux » pour avoir hébergé deux migrants dans une grange. Il risque 20 ans de prison.

    à l’été 2017 9 volontaires de No More Deaths, la plupart ne venant pas d’#Arizona, laissent des bidons d’#eau dans le désert ; ils sont accusés d’utilisation frauduleuse de véhicule et d’abandon de possessions - bref de jeter des ordures - dans une réserve fédérale, délits susceptibles d’un maximum de 6 mois
    Scott Warren a été arrêté peu après la publication d’un rapport documentant des abus de la U.S. Border Patrol.
    https://theintercept.com/2018/01/23/no-more-deaths-arizona-border-littering-charges-immigration (article de 2018 ne mentionnant alors que des peines de 5 ans)

    #désert #mourir_dans_le_désert #mourir_aux_frontières #frontières #migrations #asile #réfugiés #USA #Etats-Unis #Mexique #procès #délit_de_solidarité #solidarité

    Plus sur le groupe No More Deaths sur seenthis :
    https://seenthis.net/tag/no_more_deaths

    Et #Scott_Warren est... géographe, « college geography instructor »

    https://seenthis.net/messages/784076 via CDB_77